Presentation on theme: "Writing the Argumentative/Persuasive Essay"— Presentation transcript:
1 Writing the Argumentative/Persuasive Essay
2 CHOOSING A TOPICTo begin an argumentative/persuasive essay, you must first have an opinion you want others to share.
3 Possible Topic Ideas Should legal immigration be stopped?
Should dying people be kept on life support?Should tobacco products be banned?Should the Internet be censored?Should school prayer be allowed?Should music lyrics be censored?Should parents of teen vandals be held responsible for their child's damage?Should research on cloning be discontinued?Should a rookie salary cap be enforced in pro sports?Should boxing be banned?Should the driving age be raised to 18?Should semi-automatic weapons be banned?Should teens who murder be executed?Should hunting be outlawed?Should recycling be mandatory?Should schools require student uniforms?Should college athletes be paid?Should the death penalty be abolished?
4 RESEARCHTo be valid, an opinion or point of view must be supported by facts and information.Once you know what you will write about, you will need to do research on the topic.Research through interviewing people, or reading newspaper, book, journal or Internet articles.
5 THESIS STATEMENT The thesis statement
states your position on the topicsets up the structure for the paper.
6 SUPPORT THE THESIS Support your thesis with three reasons.
Write down each of the three main reasons that support your belief on a separate piece of paper.These are your arguments.
7 COUNTER-ARGUMENTS Every controversial issue has two sides.
Once you can support your position with research, you need to explore what others think.
8 PREPARING YOUR ARGUMENTS
Look at the three main reasons for your opinion.What objections would others have to each of your reasons?Write these down under each of your reasons. Now you have three arguments and three counter-arguments.
9 ANSWERING COUNTER- ARGUMENTS
Write your answers down under the counter-arguments.Now you have the raw material for each paragraph of the argumentative essay.
10 THE AUDIENCEWhen introducing the topic, think about the audience first.How much does the audience know about the topic?Is the audience likely to be friendly or hostile to your position?How can you “hook” the audience’s attention?
11 INTRODUCTION PARGRAPH
The first sentence is a general statement, designed to attract the reader’s attention.Second and perhaps third sentences narrow the idea down to your specific idea.The last sentence in the introduction must be your thesis.
12 General statement (hook)
INTRODUCTIONThink of the introduction as having a funnel shape:General statement (hook)Specific informationThesis
13 Example of Intro Paragraph
More people die on driving on Greek roads in a single year than all the U.S. soldiers killed in Iraq since the fighting began. The road conditions and the mentality that leads to this unnecessary and avoidable loss of life should be changed.Fact to support position and a good hook.The authors position or Thesis Statement.
14 BUILDING BODY PARAGRAPHS
The first topic sentence of the first paragraph will be the first reason that supports your position.You may even wish to begin the sentence with the word first to focus the reader’s attention on its importance.
15 FIRST BODY PARAGRAPHWrite a topic sentence and three details that support the reason you believe what you believe.Repeat the process until you have three paragraphs withthree different reasons andthree details to support that reason.
16 Counter Arguments - Rebuttals
Research what people opposed to your point of view believe. Write down three counter- arguments to your position.Now, address those arguments in a paragraph explaining why your position is a better one.
17 BUILDING PARAGRAPHSThe final sentence in each paragraph should sum up and make a transition to the main idea of the next paragraph.
18 Concluding ParagraphIndicate in the conclusion that you have shown the thesis statement to be true.Has a powerful ending often relating to the introduction.Do not include any new information in a conclusion. If you have not mentioned something yet in the paper, it is now too late.
19 What is not effective Saying the opposing viewpoint is “stupid.”
Good essays are clear, calm and factual. Prove it instead.Saying negative things about groups or individuals that have different view points.This does not support your position but makes you seem petty instead.
20 How many is that? Intro Paragraph Body Paragraph 1 Body Paragraph 2
Rebuttal Paragraph – other viewpointsConclusion Paragraph
21 Reflecting on Your Paper
Are you happy with what you have written?Have you made a convincing case for your position?Is it clear that research supports your position?Have you shown that you understand the objections to your position?
22 Reflecting on Your Paper
Have you shown that you understand the objections to your position?Is it clear that your position still outweighs the possible objections?
Presentation on theme: "The Argumentative/Persuasive Essay"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Argumentative/Persuasive Essay
Daviess County Public SchoolsJennifer Higdon/Dr. Angie Gunter
2 Step 1: The Assignment and the Plan
What is the task asking me to do?What am I being asked to argue?How much knowledge do I have of this topic?How will I gain needed knowledge and form an opinion?How long do I have? And what is the plan to get the assignment accomplished on time?
3 Step 2: Read about the Topic
Is the reading material I need to learn about this topic provided by the teacher or do I need to find appropriate materials?What note-taking method will I use to summarize and paraphrase relevant information?How will I keep track of my sources of information, so they may later be integrated into my argument and included in my Works Cited Page?
4 Step 3: OUTLINE THE ARGUMENT
IntroductionBackground InformationThesis ________________________________________Argue point 1 with examples/quotes for evidence and support as well as explanation and argumentPoint 1: _________________________________________________Argue point 2 with examples/quotes for evidence and support as well as explanation and argumentPoint 2: _________________________________________________Argue point 3 with examples/quotes for evidence and support as well as explanation and argumentPoint 3: __________________________________________________V Conclusion
5 Thesis Hamburger Method Conclusion Body of Your Essay
A Broad Statement on the Topic QuestionThesis: The Position you want to PROVEThe Organization Statement – 3 Points you want to prove that make up the ESSAY BODYHamburger MethodThesis3 Paragraphs 1) Topic Sentence 2) Fact to prove topic 3) Fact 4) Fact 5) Analysis/ TransitionBody of Your EssayConclusionRestate your thesisRecap your pointsAnalysis/Conclusion
6 Step 4: Introduce the topic to the reader in the Introduction
Why is this issue controversial?Are any recent events in the news related to this topic?What are people saying on both sides of the issue?THE LEAD -Some ways to begin-(1) anecdote- a short story to make your point(2) question- usually rhetorical, meant to involve the reader(3) quotation- a particularly appropriate or shocking quote to establish tone and/or credibility(4) description- put the reading in a certain place or time(5) startling statistic or fact.
7 Step 5: State your claim- The Thesis!
The thesis is usually the last sentence of the introduction.A thesis usually has two parts:A claim. This is where you take a stand on one side of an issue.A list that highlights the focus of the next three paragraphs.Example: The use of genetically engineered seed is beneficial to society because farmers produce more food for more profit, food is less expensive, and fewer people go hungry.
8 Step 6-8: The Supporting Paragraphs
Paragraph 2: Argue Point 1What is the first piece of specific evidence you will use to prove your thesis true? This can be a personal experience, an example from history, information in an article, novel, documentary, movie, television program, school class, teacher lecture, interview, etc. Generally, the more academic in nature and tone the source is, the stronger the argument will be. For example, which source would be more credible? Darwin’s Origin of the Species r “The Three Little Pigs”?Remember to include concrete detail (evidence from the text/example) and then commentary details (a critique or evaluation of that information as well.
9 Step 6-8: Supporting Paragraphs
Paragraph 3: Argue Point 2Paragraph 4: Argue Point 3Remember to include concrete detail (evidence from the text/example) and then commentary details (a critique or evaluation of that information as well.
10 Step 9: The ConclusionConsider the opposing viewpoint. Argue that you have the stronger case.“Although some critics claim ____________, in actuality ____________________.”Effective conclusions DO NOT simply restate what was written in previous paragraphs, they strengthen them. You could:Project the futurePropose a solutionIncorporate an effective quoteA conclusion is a “TAKE THAT!” or a “TA DA!”
11 Step 10: Document Sources
When?Give credit for specific data (facts, statistics, numbers, dates, and so on), original ideas, opinions, insights, or any information that is not considered general knowledge.How?Parenthetical Citations- Information given in parentheses immediately following the borrowed information within a paper. An example is “The first radio station, KDKA in Pittsburgh, did not go on the air until 1920” (Stark 120).Works Cited- A list found at the end listing all the works you have cited. Using websites such as easybib, citationmaker, etc. can make the creation of the Works Cited list a breeze!
12 Final Step: Revise, Revise, Revise!
Did you write an interesting lead sentence?Did you provide background information about your topic?Did you state your claim and give your paper focus with a well-written thesis?Do your supporting paragraphs argue at least three points that support your thesis with facts, scientific evidence, and your own commentary?Does your conclusion strengthen your paper?Are your sentences clearly written? Did you vary sentence type and length?Do you have transition words between paragraphs?Did you cite your sources internally and on a Works Cited list?