Women Empowerment Essay Wikipedia En

The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority. It is the process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one's life and claiming one's rights .Empowerment as action refers both to the process of self-empowerment and to professional support of people, which enables them to overcome their sense of powerlessness and lack of influence, and to recognize and use their resources. To do work with power.

The term empowerment originates from American community psychology and is associated[by whom?] with the social scientist Julian Rappaport (1981).[1] However, the roots of empowerment theory extend further into history and are linked to Marxist sociological theory. These sociological ideas have continued to be developed and refined through Neo-Marxist Theory (also known as Critical Theory). [2]

In social work, empowerment forms a practical approach of resource-oriented intervention. In the field of citizenship education and democratic education, empowerment is seen[by whom?] as a tool to increase the responsibility of the citizen. Empowerment is a key concept in the discourse on promoting civic engagement. Empowerment as a concept, which is characterized by a move away from a deficit-oriented towards a more strength-oriented perception, can increasingly be found in management concepts, as well as in the areas of continuing education and self-help.[citation needed]

Definitions[edit]

Robert Adams points to the limitations of any single definition of 'empowerment', and the danger that academic or specialist definitions might take away the word and the connected practices from the very people they are supposed to belong to.[3] Still, he offers a minimal definition of the term: 'Empowerment: the capacity of individuals, groups and/or communities to take control of their circumstances, exercise power and achieve their own goals, and the process by which, individually and collectively, they are able to help themselves and others to maximize the quality of their lives.'[4]

One definition for the term is "an intentional, ongoing process centered in the local community, involving mutual respect, critical reflection, caring, and group participation, through which people lacking an equal share of resources gain greater access to and control over those resources".[5][6]

Rappaport's (1984) definition includes: "Empowerment is viewed as a process: the mechanism by which people, organizations, and communities gain mastery over their lives."[7]

Sociological empowerment often addresses members of groups that social discrimination processes have excluded from decision-making processes through – for example – discrimination based on disability, race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. Empowerment as a methodology is also associated with feminism.

Process[edit]

Empowerment is the process of obtaining basic opportunities for marginalized people, either directly by those people, or through the help of non-marginalized others who share their own access to these opportunities. It also includes actively thwarting attempts to deny those opportunities. Empowerment also includes encouraging, and developing the skills for, self-sufficiency, with a focus on eliminating the future need for charity or welfare in the individuals of the group. This process can be difficult to start and to implement effectively.

Strategy[edit]

One empowerment strategy is to assist marginalized people to create their own nonprofit organization, using the rationale that only the marginalized people, themselves, can know what their own people need most, and that control of the organization by outsiders can actually help to further entrench marginalization. Charitable organizations lead from outside of the community, for example, can disempower the community by entrenching a dependence charity or welfare. A nonprofit organization can target strategies that cause structural changes, reducing the need for ongoing dependence. Red Cross, for example, can focus on improving the health of indigenous people, but does not have authority in its charter to install water-delivery and purification systems, even though the lack of such a system profoundly, directly and negatively impacts health. A nonprofit composed of the indigenous people, however, could ensure their own organization does have such authority and could set their own agendas, make their own plans, seek the needed resources, do as much of the work as they can, and take responsibility – and credit – for the success of their projects (or the consequences, should they fail).

The process of which enables individuals/groups to fully access personal or collective power, authority and influence, and to employ that strength when engaging with other people, institutions or society. In other words, "Empowerment is not giving people power, people already have plenty of power, in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation, to do their jobs magnificently. We define empowerment as letting this power out."[8] It encourages people to gain the skills and knowledge that will allow them to overcome obstacles in life or work environment and ultimately, help them develop within themselves or in the society.

To empower a female "...sounds as though we are dismissing or ignoring males, but the truth is, both genders desperately need to be equally empowered."[9] Empowerment occurs through improvement of conditions, standards, events, and a global perspective of life.

Criticism[edit]

Before there can be the finding that a particular group requires empowerment and that therefore their self-esteem needs to be consolidated on the basis of awareness of their strengths, there needs to be a deficit diagnosis usually carried out by experts assessing the problems of this group. The fundamental asymmetry of the relationship between experts and clients is usually not questioned by empowerment processes. It also needs to be regarded critically, in how far the empowerment approach is really applicable to all patients/clients. It is particularly questionable whether mentally ill people in acute crisis situations are in a position to make their own decisions. According to Albert Lenz, people behave primarily regressive in acute crisis situations and tend to leave the responsibility to professionals.[10] It must be assumed, therefore, that the implementation of the empowerment concept requires a minimum level of communication and reflectivity of the persons involved.

In social work and community psychology[edit]

In social work, empowerment offers an approach that allows social workers to increase the capacity for self-help of their clients. For example, this allows clients not to be seen as passive, helpless 'victims' to be rescued but instead as a self-empowered person fighting abuse/ oppression; a fight, in which the social worker takes the position of a facilitator, instead of the position of a 'rescuer'.[11]

Marginalized people who lack self-sufficiency become, at a minimum, dependent on charity, or welfare. They lose their self-confidence because they cannot be fully self-supporting. The opportunities denied them also deprive them of the pride of accomplishment which others, who have those opportunities, can develop for themselves. This in turn can lead to psychological, social and even mental health problems. "Marginalized" here refers to the overt or covert trends within societies whereby those perceived as lacking desirable traits or deviating from the group norms tend to be excluded by wider society and ostracized as undesirables.

In economics[edit]

According to Robert Adams, there is a long tradition in the UK and the USA respectively to advance forms of self-help that have developed and contributed to more recent concepts of empowerment. For example, the free enterprise economic theories of Milton Friedman embraced self-help as a respectable contributor to the economy. Both the Republicans in the US and the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher built on these theories. 'At the same time, the mutual aid aspects of the concept of self-help retained some currency with socialists and democrats.'[12]

In economic development, the empowerment approach focuses on mobilizing the self-help efforts of the poor, rather than providing them with social welfare. Economic empowerment is also the empowering of previously disadvantaged sections of the population, for example, in many previously colonized African countries.[13]

Legal[edit]

Legal empowerment happens when marginalised people or groups use the legal mobilisation i.e., law, legal systems and justice mechanisms to improve or transform their social, political or economic situations. Legal empowerment approaches are interested in understanding how they can use the law to advance interests and priorities of the marginalised.[14]

According to 'Open society foundations' (an NGO) "Legal empowerment is about strengthening the capacity of all people to exercise their rights, either as individuals or as members of a community. Legal empowerment is about grass root justice, about ensuring that law is not confined to books or courtrooms, but rather is available and meaningful to ordinary people.[15]

Lorenzo Cotula in his book ' Legal Empowerment for Local Resource Control ' outlines the fact that legal tools for securing local resource rights are enshrined in legal system, does not necessarily mean that local resource users are in position to use them and benefit from them. The state legal system is constrained by a range of different factors – from lack of resources to cultural issues. Among these factors economic, geographic, linguistic and other constraints on access to courts, lack of legal awareness as well as legal assistance tend to be recurrent problems.[16]

In many context, marginalised groups do not trust the legal system owing to the widespread manipulation that it has historically been subjected to by the more powerful. 'To what extent one knows the law, and make it work for themselves with 'para legal tools', is legal empowerment; assisted utilizing innovative approaches like legal literacy and awareness training, broadcasting legal information, conducting participatory legal discourses, supporting local resource user in negotiating with other agencies and stake holders and to strategies combining use of legal processes with advocacy along with media engagement, and socio legal mobilisation.[16]

Sometimes groups are marginalized by society at large, with governments participating in the process of marginalization. Equal opportunity laws which actively oppose such marginalization, are supposed to allow empowerment to occur. These laws made it illegal to restrict access to schools and public places based on race. They can also be seen as a symptom of minorities' and women's empowerment through lobbying.

Gender[edit]

Main articles: Gender empowerment and Women empowerment

Gender empowerment conventionally refers to the empowerment of women, which is a significant topic of discussion in regards to development and economics nowadays. It also points to approaches regarding other marginalized genders in a particular political or social context. This approach to empowerment is partly informed by feminism and employed legal empowerment by building on international human rights. Empowerment is one of the main procedural concerns when addressing human rights and development. The Human Development and Capabilities Approach, The Millennium Development Goals, and other credible approaches/goals point to empowerment and participation as a necessary step if a country is to overcome the obstacles associated with poverty and development.[17] The UN Sustainable Development Goals targets gender equality and women's empowerment for the global development agenda.[18]

In workplace management[edit]

According to Thomas A. Potterfield,[19] many organizational theorists and practitioners regard employee empowerment as one of the most important and popular management concepts of our time.

Ciulla discusses an inverse case: that of bogus empowerment.[20]

In management[edit]

In the sphere of management and organizational theory, "empowerment" often refers loosely to processes for giving subordinates (or workers generally) greater discretion and resources: distributing control in order to better serve both customers and the interests of employing organizations.

One account of the history of workplace empowerment in the United States recalls the clash of management styles in railroad construction in the American West in the mid-19th century, where "traditional" hierarchical East-Coast models of control encountered individualistic pioneer workers, strongly supplemented by methods of efficiency-oriented "worker responsibility" brought to the scene by Chineselaborers. In this case, empowerment at the level of work teams or brigades achieved a notable (but short-lived) demonstrated superiority. See the views of Robert L. Webb.

During the 1980s and 1990s, empowerment has become a point of interest in management concepts and business administration. In this context, empowerment involves approaches that promise greater participation and integration to the employee in order to cope with their tasks as independently as possible and responsibly can. A strength-based approach known as "empowerment circle" has become an instrument of organizational development. Multidisciplinary empowerment teams aim for the development of quality circles to improve the organizational culture, strengthening the motivation and the skills of employees. The target of subjective job satisfaction of employees is pursued through flat hierarchies, participation in decisions, opening of creative effort, a positive, appreciative team culture, self-evaluation, taking responsibility (for results), more self-determination and constant further learning. The optimal use of existing potential and abilities can supposedly be better reached by satisfied and active workers. Here, knowledge management contributes significantly to implement employee participation as a guiding principle, for example through the creation of communities of practice.[21]

However, it is important to ensure that the individual employee has the skills to meet their allocated responsibilities and that the company's structure sets up the right incentives for employees to reward their taking responsibilities. Otherwise there is a danger of being overwhelmed or even becoming lethargic.[22]

Implications for company culture[edit]

Empowerment of employees requires a culture of trust in the organization and an appropriate information and communication system.[23] The aim of these activities is to save control costs, that become redundant when employees act independently and in a self-motivated fashion. In the book Empowerment Takes More Than a Minute, the authors illustrate three keys that organizations can use to open the knowledge, experience, and motivation power that people already have.[8] The three keys that managers must use to empower their employees are:

  1. Share information with everyone
  2. Create autonomy through boundaries
  3. Replace the old hierarchy with self-directed work teams

According to Stewart, in order to guarantee a successful work environment, managers need to exercise the "right kind of authority" (p. 6). To summarize, "empowerment is simply the effective use of a manager’s authority", and subsequently, it is a productive way to maximize all-around work efficiency.[24]

These keys are hard to put into place and it is a journey to achieve empowerment in a workplace. It is important to train employees and make sure they have trust in what empowerment will bring to a company.[8]

The implementation of the concept of empowerment in management has also been criticised for failing to live up to its claims.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Adams, Robert. Empowerment, participation and social work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Humphries, Beth. Critical Perspectives on Empowerment. Birmingham: Venture, 1996.
  • Rappaport, Julian, Carolyn F. Swift, and Robert Hess. Studies in Empowerment: Steps toward Understanding and Action. New York: Haworth, 1984.
  • Thomas, K. W. and Velthouse, B. A. (1990) "Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An 'Interpretive' Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation". Academy of Management Review, Vol 15, No. 4, 666–681.
  • Wilkinson, A. 1998. Empowerment: theory and practice. Personnel Review. [online]. Vol. 27, No. 1, 40–56. Accessed February 16, 2004.
Empowerment in the work for senior citizens in a residential home in Germany
  1. ^Rappaport, Julian. In praise of paradox. A social policy of empowerment over prevention, in: American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 9 (1), 1981, 1–25 (13)
  2. ^Burton & Kagan (1996). "Rethinking empowerment: shared action against powerlessness". http://www.compsy.org.uk. Archived from the original on . Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  3. ^Adams, Robert. Empowerment, participation and social work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p.6.
  4. ^Adams, Robert. Empowerment, participation and social work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p.xvi
  5. ^Cornell Empowerment Group. (1989, October). Empowerment and family support. Networking Bulletin, 1(1)2
  6. ^Zimmerman, M.A. (2000). Empowerment Theory: Psychological, Organizational and Community Levels of Analysis. "Handbook of Community Psychology," 43–63.
  7. ^Rappaport, J. (1984). Studies in empowerment: Introduction to the issue. "Prevention in Human Services," 3, 1–7.
  8. ^ abcBlanchard, Kenneth H.; John P. Carlos; Alan Randolph (1996). Empowerment Takes More than a Minute. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. 
  9. ^"Encouraging and Empowering Girls - Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association". Ccpa-accp.ca. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  10. ^Albert Lenz: Empowerment und Ressourcenaktivierung – Perspektiven für die psychosoziale Praxis.
  11. ^Adams, Robert. Empowerment, participation and social work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p.12ff.
  12. ^Adams, Robert. Empowerment, participation and social work. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, p.7-9
  13. ^"Welcome to MicroEmpowering!". Microempowering.org. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  14. ^"The politics of legal empowerment: legal mobilisation strategies and implications for development". Odi.org. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  15. ^"What Is Legal Empowerment?". Retrieved 29 December 2014. 
  16. ^ abCotula, Lorenzo (1 Jan 2007). Legal Empowerment for Local Resource Control: Securing Local Resource Rights Within Foreign Investment Projects in Africa. IIED, 2007. p. 48. ISBN 9781843696674. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  17. ^U.N. General Assembly, 55th Session. “United Nations Millennium Declaration.” (A/55/L.2). 8 September 2000. (Online) Available: www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf (accessed January 2, 2008)
  18. ^"United Nations: Gender equality and women's empowerment". Un.org. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  19. ^Potterfield, Thomas. "The Business of Employee Empowerment: Democracy and Ideology in the Workplace." Quorum Books, 1999, p. 6
  20. ^Ciulla, Joanne B. (2004), "Leadership and the Problem of Bogus Empowerment", in Ciulla, Joanne B., Ethics, the heart of leadership (2 ed.), Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-275-98248-5,  
  21. ^"Empowering Your Employees to Empower Themselves". hbr.org. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  22. ^"Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes". hbr.org. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 
  23. ^"Employee Empowerment: The Key to Employee Satisfaction". AtulHost. 
  24. ^Stewart, Aileen Mitchell. Empowering People (Institute of Management). Pitman. London: Financial Times Management, 1994.
  25. ^"6 Myths About Empowering Employees". hbr.org. Retrieved 2015-09-17. 

The status of Women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.[4] With a decline in their status from the ancient to medieval times,[5][6] to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, their history has been eventful. In modern India, women have held high offices including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Leader of the Opposition, Union Ministers, Chief Ministers and Governors.

Women's rights under the Constitution of India — mainly includes equality, dignity, and freedom from discrimination; further, India has various statutes governing the rights of women.[7][8]

As of 2011[update], the President of India, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (Lower House of the parliament) were women. However, women in India continue to face numerous problems such as crime, gender inequality.

History of women in India[edit]

Ancient India[edit]

Women during the early Vedic period[9][better source needed] enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life.[10][better source needed][page needed] Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.[11][12][non-primary source needed] Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were probably free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage.[13] Scriptures such as the Rig Veda and Upanishads mention several women sages and seers, notably Gargi and Maitreyi.[citation needed]

Originally, women were allowed to undergo initiation and study the Veda's. In the Dharmasutra of Harita, it is mentioned that:

There are two types of women: those who become students of the Veda and those who marry immediately. Of these, the students of the Veda undergo initiation, kindle the sacred fire, study the Veda, and beg food in their own houses. In the case of those who marry immediately, however, when the time for marriage comes, their marriage should be performed after initiating them in some manner.[14][full citation needed]

In Mahabharata, the story of Draupadi's marriage to 5 men is a case in point. This pointed to the fact, that polygamy was matched with polyandry during the Vedic era. Women could select their husband in an assembly called `swayamwar’. In this practice, the King would invite all the princes, and the princess would select one, and marry him while the court watched. This clearly showed, how women's rights were taken seriously during the Vedic era. This practice was prevalent till the 10th century A.D.

Also, in the Puranas, every God was shown in consort of their wives ( Brahma with Saraswathi, Vishnu with Lakshmi, Shiva with Parvati), and practices of idol of god and goddess also showed equal importance to women and men, Separate temples were setup for goddesses, and within each temple, goddesses were treated and worshipped with as much care and devotion as the gods were. There are also specific practices that endure to this day, in terms of preference of worship.

In the book "Hindu Female Dieties as a resource for contemporary rediscovery of the Goddess" by Gross Rita.M, 1989, says

"According to some scholars the positive constructions of femininity found in goddess imagery and in the related imagery of the virangana or heroic woman have created a cognitive framework, for Hindus to accept and accommodate powerful female figures like "Indira Gandhi and Phoolan Devi, The same would not have been possible in Western religious traditions "

Even in the practice of Homa ( ritual involving fire, and offerings to fire), every mantra or Shloka is addressed to Swaha, the wife of Agni, instead of Agni himself. Devi Bhagavata Purana: 9.43, says that all requests to Agni had to made through his wife only.

"O Goddess, Let yourself become the burning power of fire; who is not able to burn anything without thee. At the conclusion of any mantra, whoever taking thy name (Svaha), will pour oblations in the fire, he will cause those offerings to go directly to the gods. Mother, let yourself, the repository of all prosperity, reign over as the lady of his (fire's) house."

This aspect of Swaha as Agni's wife is mentioned in Mahabharata, Brahmavantara Purana, Bhagavatha Purana as various hymns.

In the Gupta period instances are not rare of women participating in administrative job. Prabhabati, the daughter of Chandra Gupta II performed administrative duties in her kingdom. Instances of women of the upper classes extending their phase of activities beyond the domestic circle are provided by the queen and queens regent in Kashmir, Rajasthan, Orissa and Andhra. Institutions were established for co-education. In the work called Amarkosh written in the Gupta era names of the teachers and professors are there and they belonged to female sex. They were the authors of Vedic scripts and ‘mantras ‘.

Two hundred years before Alexander's attack on India, Queen Nayanika was ruler and military commander of the Satavanhana Empire of the Deccan region (south-central India).

In 300 BC, Princess Kumaradevi married Prince Chandragupta, and they ruled their two kingdoms as co-regents.

Queen Orrisa assumed regency when her son died in the late ninth century and immediately involved herself in military adventuring. Queen Kurmadevi of Mevad commanded her armies on the battlefield in the late twelfth century. Queen Didday of Kashmir ruled as full sovereign for twenty-two years, and Queen Jawahirabi fought and died at the head of her army.

South in Sri Lanka, Queen Sugula led her armies against the southern king, her nephew. When pressed by the royal forces, she guided her forces into the mountains, where she built a number of forts. Sugula held out against the king's army for ten years and is remembered in Sri Lankan history as "Sugula the rebel queen fearless".

Medieval period[edit]

The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent brought changes to Indian society. The position of Indian women in society further deteriorated during this period,[6][10][better source needed] . The purdah system and Jauhar are attributable to the Muslim rules that existed between 10th century awards.

The Rajputs of Rajasthan, started the practice of Jauhar after a century of Islamic invasions of the 10th century.The early Islamic invasions in Sindh did not result in Jauhar, as is evident from the history of Raja Dahir or Sindh. After the attack by Mohammed-Bin-Qasim in 10th century, and the killing of Raja Dahir, his wife and daughters were sent off as sexual slaves to Damascus. This sexual slavery prevalent in 10th century, may have resulted in the evolution of Jauhar in Western India, which were the first parts of India exposed to invasions from the Persian and Turkish empires. The subsequent Islamic invasiosn

Polygamy was practised among Hindu Kshatriya rulers.[15] However, this practice may not be considered a uniform social behavior, as at the same time, there were kingdoms which practised polyandry also. Nair warrior communities in Kerala practiced polyandry for centuries, during the medieval period up to the British 18th century.

The status of women of Islam, followed Islamic precepts, and rules of Sharia.

Women were restricted to Zenana areas of the house.[citation needed]

Women had to wear the Burqa or niqab, and were disallowed to move alone without a guardian,

Their rights were dictated by the Sharia law, which prevented women from getting share of the inherited wealth.

Apastamba sutra (c. 4th century BCE).[16][non-primary source needed] captures some prevalent ideas of role of women during the post Vedic ages. The Apastamba Sutra shows the elevated position of women that existed during the 4th century B.C.

A man is not allowed to abandon his wife (A 1.28.19).

He permits daughters to inherit (A 2.14.4).

There can be no division of property between a husband and a wife, because they are linked inextricably together and have joint custody of the property (A 2.29.3).

Thus, a wife may make gifts and use the family wealth on her own when her husband is away (A 2.12.16–20).

Women are upholders of traditional lore, and Āpastamba tells his audience that they should learn some customs from women (A 2.15.9; 2.29.11).

The Stri Dharma Paddhati of Tryambakayajvan, an official at Thanjavur c. 1730 says the following about the role of women. This book shows that role of women during marriage had been specified clearly, and the patriarchal view of society had emerged clearly, as they detail the service of women to men in marriage.

However, there were cases of women often becoming prominent in the fields of politics, literature, education and religion also during this period.[6][better source needed]Razia Sultana (1205-1240) became the only woman monarch to have ever ruled Delhi. The Gond queen Durgavati (1524-1564) ruled for fifteen years before losing her life in a battle with Mughal emperor Akbar's general Asaf Khan in 1564. Chand Bibi defended Ahmednagar against the powerful Mughal forces of Akbar in the 1590s. Jehangir's wife Nur Jehan effectively wielded imperial power, and was recognised as the real power behind the Mughal throne. The Mughal princesses Jahanara and Zebunnissa were well-known poets, and also influenced the ruling powers. Shivaji's mother, Jijabai, was queen regent because of her ability as a warrior and an administrator. Tarabai was another female Maratha ruler. In South India, many women administered villages, towns, and divisions, and ushered in new social and religious institutions.[15]

Jijabai was the mother of Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire.

Akka Mahadeviwas a prominent figure of the Veerashaiva Bhakti movement of the 12th century Karnataka.Her Vachanas in Kannada, a form of didactic poetry, are considered her most notable contribution to Kannada Bhakti literature

To quote Sir Lepel Griffin K.C.S, from his books on Sikh history, the Sikh women

"have on occasions shown themselves the equals of men in wisdom and administrative ability." Usually the dowager ranis were up to commendable works. A passing reference of the role of some of them towards the end of the eighteenth century and in the first half of the nineteenth century may not be out of place here. Rani Sada Kaur, widow of Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh Kanaihya and mother-in-law of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, was well versed in the affairs of the state and commanded her soldiers in the battle-field. She was a very shrewd lady with a thorough grasp of statecraft. Mai Desan, the widow of Charhat Singh Sukarchakia, was a great administrator, an experienced and a wise diplomat who conducted the civil and military affairs dexterously."

He quotes many women, who had served the Sikh cause including

  • Rattan Kaur, the widow of Tara Singh Ghaiba, was a brave and an able lady who kept the Lahore Durbar forces at bay for a sufficient time till the gate-keepers were bribed by the Lahore army.
  • Mai Sukhan, the widow of Gulab Singh Bhangi, strongly defended the town of Amritsar against Ranjit Singh for some time.
  • Dharam Kaur, wife of Dal Singh of Akalgarh, after her husband's imprisonment by Ranjit Singh, mounted guns on the walls of her fort and fought against the Durbar forces. She was a brave and a wise lady who was able, for some time, to foil the designs of the Lahore ruler on her territory.
  • After Sardar Baghel Singh's death in 1802, his two widows, Ram Kaur and Rattan Kaur, looked after their territories very well. Ram Kaur, the elder Sardarni, maintained her control over the district of Hoshiarpur which provided her a revenue of two lakh ruprees and Sardarni Rattan Kaur kept Chhalondi in her possession, fetching her an annual revenue of three lakh rupees. She administered her territory efficiently.
  • Similarly, Rani Chand Kaur, widow of Maharaja Kharak Singh, and Rani Jindan, widow of Ranjit Singh, played important roles in the Lahore Durbar polity.

and many more are quoted in his works.

Among the few women in history to save a kingdom by sheer force and willpower, in the Maratha empires

  • Rani Tarabai’s unflagging courage and indomitable spirit are at par with the legendary
  • Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi,
  • Rani Rudramma Devi of Warangal and
  • Rani Abbakka Chowta of Ullal.

Historical practices[edit]

There have been positive practices of women as subject of respect in India, and there have been regressive practices as well. Here are some practices

Naari Puja

In Kerala’s Alappuzha district, an ancient temple called Chakkulathu Kavu holds an exceptionally remarkable annual ritual of worshipping women in the month of December.

Popularly known as Naari Puja, the ritual is conducted every year on the first Friday of Dhanu maasam. The chief priest of the temple himself conducts the puja.Thousands of women are worshipped during the ceremony regardless of the caste, religion or creed they belong to. Women are seated on a chair (peetom) for the ritual and the chief priest washes their feet. The women are later garlanded and offered flowers.

Sati

Sati is an old, almost completely defunct custom among some communities, in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband's funeral pyre. Although the act was supposed to be voluntary on the widow's part, its practice is forbidden by the Hindu scriptures in Kali yuga, the current age.[17][unreliable source?] After the foreign invasions of Indian subcontinent, this practice started to mark its presence, as women were often raped or kidnapped by the foreign forces.[18][better source needed] It was abolished by the British in 1829. There have been around forty reported cases of sati since independence.[19] In 1987, the Roop Kanwar case in Rajasthan led to The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act.[20]

Purdah

Purdah is the practice among some Muslim communities requiring women to cover themselves in for the purpose of modesty.[citation needed]

Devadasi

Devadasi or Devaradiyar means “servant of God”. These women were dedicated to God and were considered given in marriage to God, meaning that they could therefore not marry any ‘mortal’. Nevertheless, they were free to choose partners, from among married and unmarried men alike. These relationships could be long and stable, or just for a short period of time. But in no way were these women economically dependent on their partners. They learned music and dance, and as many as 64 types of arts. They would dance and sing in temples or in front of royalty and earn gold and land as a reward. Some chose to dedicate themselves only to God and stayed without a partner all through their life.The tradition of Devadasi culture can be traced back to as early as the 7th century, particularly in southern parts of India during the reigns of the Cholas, Chelas, and Pandyas. They were well treated and respected, and held a high social status in the society. It was common for them to be invited to be present at or initiate sacred religious rituals. As long as the temples and empires flourished, so did they. With the death of the empires, the Devadasi practice degenerated into a practice of sex labor, and child prostitution. A law banning the practice of Devadasi prostitution was enacted, and is banned. However, according to the National Human Rights Commission, in 2013, there were as many as 450,000 Devadasis in India.

British rule[edit]

During the British Raj, many reformers such as Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Jyotirao Phule fought for the betterment of women. Peary Charan Sarkar, a former student of Hindu College, Calcutta and a member of "Young Bengal", set up the first free school for girls in India in 1847 in Barasat, a suburb of Calcutta (later the school was named Kalikrishna Girls' High School).

While this might suggest that there was no positive British contribution during the Raj era, that is not entirely the case. Missionaries' wives such as Martha Mault née Mead and her daughter Eliza Caldwell née Mault are rightly remembered for pioneering the education and training of girls in south India. This practice was initially met with local resistance, as it flew in the face of tradition. Raja Rammohan Roy's efforts led to the abolition of Sati under Governor-GeneralWilliam Cavendish-Bentinck in 1829. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's crusade for improvement in the situation of widows led to the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. Many women reformers such as Pandita Ramabai also helped the cause of women.

Kittur Chennamma, queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka,[22] led an armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. Abbakka Rani, queen of coastal Karnataka, led the defence against invading European armies, notably the Portuguese in the 16th century. Rani Lakshmi Bai, the Queen of Jhansi, led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. She is now widely considered as a national hero. Begum Hazrat Mahal, the co-ruler of Awadh, was another ruler who led the revolt of 1857. She refused deals with the British and later retreated to Nepal. The Begums of Bhopal were also considered notable female rulers during this period. They were trained in martial arts.

Chandramukhi Basu, Kadambini Ganguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi were some of the earliest Indian women to obtain a degree.

In 1917, the first women's delegation met the Secretary of State to demand women's political rights, supported by the Indian National Congress. The All India Women's Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927, it became a major organisation in the movement for social change.[9][23] In 1929, the Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed, stipulating fourteen as the minimum age of marriage for a girl.[9][24][full citation needed] Though Mahatma Gandhi himself married at the age of thirteen, he later urged people to boycott child marriages and called upon young men to marry child widows.[25]

Independent India[edit]

Women in India now participate fully in areas such as education, sports, politics, media, art and culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc.[6]Indira Gandhi, who served as Prime Minister of India for an aggregate period of fifteen years, is the world's longest serving woman Prime Minister.[26]

The Constitution of India guarantees to all Indian women equality (Article 14),[27] no discrimination by the State (Article 15(1)),[28] equality of opportunity (Article 16),[27] equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)) and Article 42.[27] In addition, it allows special provisions to be made by the State in favour of women and children (Article 15(3)), renounces practices derogatory to the dignity of women (Article 51(A) (e)), and also allows for provisions to be made by the State for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. (Article 42).[29]

Feminist activism in India gained momentum in the late 1970s. One of the first national-level issues that brought women's groups together was the Mathura rape case. The acquittal of policemen accused of raping a young girl Mathura in a police station led to country-wide protests in 1979-1980. The protests, widely covered by the national media, forced the Government to amend the Evidence Act, the Criminal Procedure Code, and the Indian Penal Code; and created a new offence, custodial rape.[29] Female activists also united over issues such as female infanticide, gender bias, women's health, women's safety, and women's literacy.

Since alcoholism is often associated with violence against women in India,[30] many women groups launched anti-liquor campaigns in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and other states.[29] Many Indian Muslim women have questioned the fundamental leaders' interpretation of women's rights under the Shariat law and have criticised the triple talaq system (see below about 2017).[9]

In the 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played a major role in the advancement of women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements; for example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women's Empowerment (Swashakti).[9] The National Policy For The Empowerment Of Women came was passed in 2001.[31]

In 2006, the case of Imrana, a Muslim rape victim, was highlighted by the media. Imrana was raped by her father-in-law. The pronouncement of some Muslim clerics that Imrana should marry her father-in-law led to widespread protests, and finally Imrana's father-in-law was sentenced to 10 years in prison. The verdict was welcomed by many women's groups and the All India Muslim Personal Law Board.[32]

According to a report by Thomson Reuters, India is the "fourth most dangerous country" in the world for women,[33][34] India was also noted as the worst country for women among the G20 countries,[35] however, this report has faced criticism for its inaccuracy.[36] On 9 March 2010, one day after International Women's day, Rajya Sabha passed the Women's Reservation Bill requiring that 33% of seats in India's Parliament and state legislative bodies be reserved for women.[4] A poll in October 2017 was published by Thomson Reuters Foundation, found that Delhi was the fourth most dangerous megacity (total 40 in the world) for women and it was also the worst megacity in the world for women when it came to sexual violence, risk of rape and harassment.[37]

In 2014, an Indian family court in Mumbai ruled that a husband objecting to his wife wearing a kurta and jeans and forcing her to wear a sari amounts to cruelty inflicted by the husband and can be a ground to seek divorce.[38] The wife was thus granted a divorce on the ground of cruelty as defined under section 27(1)(d) of Special Marriage Act, 1954.[38]

On 22 August 2017, the Indian Supreme Court deemed instant triple talaq (talaq-e-biddat) unconstitutional.[39][40]

Timeline of women's achievements in India[edit]

The steady change in the position of women can be highlighted by looking at what has been achieved by women in the country:

  • 1848: Savitribai Phule, along with her husband Jyotirao Phule, opened a school for girls in Pune, India. Savitribai Phule became the first woman teacher in India.
  • 1879: John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune established the Bethune School in 1849, which developed into the Bethune College in 1879, thus becoming the first women's college in India.
  • 1883: Chandramukhi Basu and Kadambini Ganguly became the first female graduates of India and the British Empire.
  • 1886: Kadambini Ganguly and Anandi Gopal Joshi became the first women from India to be trained in Western medicine.
  • 1898: Sister Nivedita Girls' School was inaugurated
  • 1905: Suzanne RD Tata becomes the first Indian woman to drive a car.[41]
  • 1916: The first women's university, SNDT Women's University, was founded on 2 June 1916 by the social reformerDhondo Keshav Karve with just five students.
  • 1917: Annie Besant became the first female president of the Indian National Congress.
  • 1919: For her distinguished social service, Pandita Ramabai became the first Indian woman to be awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal by the British Raj.
  • 1925: Sarojini Naidu became the first Indian born female president of the Indian National Congress.
  • 1927: The All India Women's Conference was founded.
  • 1936: Sarla Thakral became the first Indian woman to fly an aircraft.[42][43][44]
  • 1944: Asima Chatterjee became the first Indian woman to be conferred the Doctorate of Science by an Indian university.
  • 1947: On 15 August 1947, following independence, Sarojini Naidu became the governor of the United Provinces, and in the process became India's first woman governor. On the same day, Amrit Kaur assumed office as the first female Cabinet minister of India in the country's first cabinet.
  • Post independence:Rukmini Devi Arundale was the first ever woman in Indian History to be nominated a Rajya Sabha member. She is considered the most important revivalist in the Indian classical dance form of Bharatanatyam from its original 'sadhir' style, prevalent amongst the temple dancers, Devadasis.She also worked for the re-establishment of traditional Indian arts and crafts.
  • 1951: Prem Mathur of the Deccan Airways becomes the first Indian woman commercial pilot.

Politics[edit]

India has one of the highest number of female politicians in the world. Women have held high offices in India including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha and Leader of the Opposition. The Indian states Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh,[52]Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tripura have implemented 50% reservation for women in PRIs.[53][54] Majority of candidates in these Panchayats are women. Currently 100% of elected members in Kodassery Panchayat in Kerala are women.[55] There are currently 5 female chief ministers in India.

As of 2016, 12 out of 29 states and the union territory of Delhi have had at least one female Chief Minister.

Culture[edit]

The status of women in India is strongly connected to family relations. In India, the family is seen as crucially important, and in most of the country the family unit is patrilineal. Families are usually multi-generational, with the bride moving to live with the in-laws. Families are usually hierarchical, with the elders having authority over the younger generations, and the males over females. The vast majority of marriages are monogamous (one husband and one wife), but both polygyny and polyandry in India have a tradition among some populations in India.[56]Weddings in India can by quite expensive. Most marriages in India are arranged.[57]

With regard to dress, a sari (a long piece of fabric wound around the body) and salwar kameez are worn by women all over India. A bindi is part of a woman's make-up. Despite common belief, the bindi on the forehead does not signify marital status; however, the Sindoor does.[58]

Rangoli (or Kolam) is a traditional art very popular among Indian women.

In Indian culture, families usually start there day by worshiping God and doing puja ("Arti"- Indian tradition to worship god).

"The Indian way of life provides the vision of the natural, real way of life. We veil ourselves with unnatural masks. On the face of India are the tender expressions which carry the mark of the Creator's hand.".....George Bernard Shaw[59]

Military[edit]

Main article: Women in Indian Armed Forces

The Indian Armed Forces began recruiting women to non-medical positions in 1992.[60] The Indian Army began inducting women officers in 1992.[61] The Border Security Force (BSF) began recruiting female officers in 2013. On 25 March 2017, Tanushree Pareek became the first female combat officer commissioned by the BSF.

"Amrapali greets Buddha", ivory carving, National Museum of New Delhi
London Mission Bengali Girls' School, Calcutta (LMS, 1869, p.12)[21]
Female Safety Index per state according to the Tata Strategic Management Group. Light green indicates greatest safety; yellow, medium safety and light red, least safety.
Sarla Thakral became the first Indian woman to fly an aircraft in 1936.
Kalpana Chawla, NASA photo portrait in orange suit
A female officer in the Indian Army briefing Russian soldiers during a joint exercise in 2015.

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