In a telephone interview from his Tokyo home tonight, Mr. Oe, a voluble if somewhat solemn man, said the call from Stockholm, at a little before 9 P.M. local time, had come as a thunderbolt. "It was a total surprise," he said. "Completely. Total."
While he has often spoken of his ambiguous feelings about Japan, he said he was proud the Swedish Academy recognized the strength of modern Japanese literature and hoped the prize would encourage others here. "I believe I am a very Japanese writer," he said. "I have always wanted to write about our country, our society and feelings about the contemporary scene. But there is a big difference between us and classic Japanese literature."
He said that ultimately his writing was focused on a single concern. "I am writing about the dignity of human beings," he said.
Mr. Oe is the 91st recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, which was won last year by Toni Morrison. The prize includes an award of $930,000.
Though he is one of Japan's most acclaimed authors, and had been mentioned in recent years as a potential Nobel winner, Mr. Oe is relatively unknown in the United States and much of his writing has never been translated into English. Several American publishers, including Kodansha America, Grove/Atlantic and M. E. Sharpe, have published his works in translation in the United States, and all said yesterday that they planned to make copies of the work more readily available.
Because the three previous winners -- Derek Walcott, Nadine Gordimer and Ms. Morrison -- write in English, speculation before today's announcement had centered on authors from Europe or Asia. Among those considered in the running were the Belgian poet, playwright and novelist Hugo Claus, who writes in Flemish; the German novelist and playwright Peter Handke; the Dutch novelist Cees Nooteboom; the Swedish poet Tomas Transtromer; the Japanese novelist Shusaku Endo, and the Irish poet Seamus Heaney.
The owlish, often detached-looking Mr. Oe grew up in a small village on the western island of Shikoku, a place steeped in Japan's rural traditions and wartime propaganda. The sense of wonder and security he seems to have felt in those innocent days, before the atomic bomb was dropped and an emperor he was taught to regard as divine announced that Japan had been defeated, appears again and again in his writing as a sort of Eden.
His early works, written while he was studying French literature at Tokyo University, are regarded as classics of the disillusionment his nation felt on seeing what Japan's leadership had done to the country. One of his first published stories, "An Odd Job," describes a young man whose job is to bring dogs to a laboratory where they will be used in experiments. Looking at the huddled animals, he compares them to Japan's university students.
"That was the beginning of his literary odyssey," said John Nathan, a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara, who translated several of Mr. Oe's early books into English. "He was the first Japanese writer taken thunderously as a serious writer while he was still a student."
Mr. Oe supported leftist causes, particularly opposition to the United States-Japan security treaty, which permits the maintenance of a string of American military bases across Japan. His popularity was near its peak during anti-treaty riots in 1960.
The birth of his first son, in 1963, altered his life and career. Mr. Oe's wife, Yukari, the daughter of a well-known author, Mansaku Itami, gave birth to a boy with serious brain damage. Just two months later, Mr. Oe visited Hiroshima and spoke with survivors of the atomic bombing.
Out of those experiences he produced "A Personal Matter" and "Hiroshima Notes," an account of the courage of some of the survivors of the bombing in the face of the dehumanizing horror of the event.
He was the youngest of a generation of authors who responded to the war experience by depicting a world knocked off its center and surrounded by dark, irrational forces.
In the telephone interview he compared himself to Kobo Abe, the author of the surrealistic novel "The Woman in the Dunes"; Shohei Ooka, who wrote about the horrors of the fighting in the Philippines during the war, and Masuji Ibuse, best known for "Black Rain," a novel about the victims of the atomic bombing. "They created the way to the Nobel Prize," Mr. Oe said. "I am the youngest one of that group. I received the prize in their place."
Mr. Abe and Mr. Ibuse died last year. Ooka died in 1988.
Mr. Oe also acknowledged that the seriousness of his generation and its political agenda made it seem old-fashioned compared with young Japanese writers today, who have tended to be more introspective and more concerned with materialism than with war. "I am the last author who practices the old, very heavy or sincere way of writing," Mr. Oe said.
While Mr. Oe has a reputation as a dour and at times overly earnest man, Mr. Nathan, who has known him for 30 years, said that the writer could be spontaneous and impish with friends. "He does maintain a very solemn pose," Mr. Nathan said, "but the other side is that the guy can be a wild man."
Mr. Oe is a voracious reader, particularly of English-language and French authors. Mr. Nathan said an evening's conversation could take in everything from the tense used in a John Updike novel to W. H. Auden's poetry.
Recently, the theme of redemption has become more prevalent in Mr. Oe's work. This, too, may be related to his personal life. His eldest son, Hikari (Japanese for light or light beam), has overcome his disability enough to become a composer. (Mr. Oe also has a daughter, Natsumiko, and another son, Sakurao.)
In a documentary shown on Japanese television recently, Mr. Oe was shown completing the final pages of the last novel in a trilogy. He ended the book by declaring that with Hikari's new career under way, he would not write any further novels. He then penned in English a closing word, "Rejoyce."
Lyrical, Searing Images Of Dislocation and Anger
"Is there any possibility that the baby will grow up normally if he's operated on? At the hospital where he was born yesterday they said the most we could hope for even with surgery was a kind of vegetable existence."
"A vegetable -- I don't know if I'd put it that way. . . ." The doctor, without a direct reply to Bird's question, lapsed into silence. Bird watched his face, waiting for him to speak again. And suddenly he felt himself being seized by a disgraceful desire. It had quickened in the darkness of his mind like a clot of black slugs when he had learned at the reception window that his baby was still alive, and gradually had made clear to him its meaning as it propagated with horrid vigor. Bird again dredged the question up to the surface of his conscious mind: how can we spend the rest of our lives, my wife and I, with a monster baby riding on our backs? Somehow I must get away from the monster baby. If I don't, ah, what will become of my trip to Africa? In a fervor of self-defense, as if he were being stalked through the glass partition by the monster baby in an incubator, Bird braced himself for battle. At the same time he blushed and began to sweat, ashamed of the tapeworm of egotism that had attached itself to him. One ear was deafened by the roar of blood hurtling through it and his eyes gradually reddened as though walloped by a massive, invisible fist. The sensation of shame fanned the red fire in his face and tears seeped into his eyes -- ah, Bird longed, if only I could spare myself the burden of a monstrous vegetable baby. But voice his thoughts in an appeal to the doctor he could not do, the burden of his shame was too heavy. Despairing, his face red as a tomato, Bird hung his head.
-- From "A Personal Matter" (Grove Press, 1969)
And so it came about one morning in the winter of 196- that the fat man and his fat son set out for the zoo together. Eeyore's mother, anxious about the effect of the cold on his asthma, had bundled him into clothing until he couldn't have worn another scrap; and the fat man himself, who preferred the two of them to be dressed as nearly alike as possible, had outfitted him on their way to the station in a woolen stocking cap identical to the one he had worn out of the house. The result was that, even to his father, the boy looked like an Eskimo child just arrived from the Pole. This meant without question that in other eyes they must have appeared, not a robust, but simply corpulent, Eskimo father and son. Bundled up like a pair of sausages, they stepped onto the train with their hands clasped tightly and, sweat beading the bridges of their noses and all the skin beneath their clothing, a flush on their moon faces where they were visible between their stocking caps and the high collars of their overcoats, enjoyed its lulling vibrations.
-- From "Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness" (Grove Press, 1977) The Very Few, Soon to be Many
Despite fame and popularity in his native Japan, Kenzaburo Oe has not been widely published in English, though that is certain to change now that he is a Nobel laureate. These are some of the major works available in English now.
The Catch, Japan Quarterly (1958)
A Personal Matter, Grove Press (1969)
The Silent Cry, Kodansha International (1974)
Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness, Grove Press (1977)
The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath, Grove Press (1984) NONFICTION
Hiroshima Notes, YMCA Press (1963)
Japan's Dual Identity: A Writer's Dilemma, WLT (1988)Continue reading the main story
In this Japanese name, the family name is Ōe.
Kenzaburō Ōe(大江 健三郎,Ōe Kenzaburō, born 31 January 1935) is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His novels, short stories and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory, deal with political, social and philosophical issues, including nuclear weapons, nuclear power, social non-conformism, and existentialism. Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1994 for creating "an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today".
Ōe was born in Ōse(大瀬村,Ōse-mura), a village now in Uchiko, Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku. He was the third son of seven children. Ōe's grandmother taught him art and oral performance. His grandmother died in 1944, and later that year, Ōe's father died in the Pacific War. Ōe's mother became his primary educator, buying him books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, whose impact Ōe says "he will carry to the grave".
Ōe remembers his elementary school teacher claiming that Emperor Hirohito was a living god, and asking him every morning, "What would you do if the emperor commanded you to die?" Ōe always replied, "I would die, sir. I would cut open my belly and die." At home in bed at night he would acknowledge his reluctance to die and feel ashamed. After the war, he realized he had been taught lies and felt betrayed. This sense of betrayal later appeared in his writing.
Ōe attended high school in Matsuyama. At the age of 18, he made his first trip to Tokyo and in the following year began studying French Literature at Tokyo University under the direction of Professor Kazuo Watanabe, a specialist on François Rabelais. Oe began publishing stories in 1957, while still a student, strongly influenced by contemporary writing in France and the United States. He married in February 1960. His wife, Yukari, was the daughter of film director Mansaku Itami and sister of film director Juzo Itami. The same year he met Mao Zedong on a trip to China. He also went to Russia and Europe the following year, visiting Sartre in Paris.
In 1961, Ōe's novellas Seventeen and The Death of a Political Youth were published by a Japanese literary magazine. Both were inspired by seventeen-year-old Yamaguchi Otoya, who assassinated the chairman of Japan's Socialist Party in 1960, and then killed himself in prison three weeks later.
Yamaguchi had admirers among the extreme right wing who were angered by The Death of a Political Youth and both Ōe and the magazine received death threats day and night for weeks. The magazine soon apologized to offended readers, but Ōe did not. The story has never been reprinted or translated.
Ōe lives in Tokyo. He has three children; the eldest son, Hikari, has been brain-damaged since his birth in 1963, and his disability has been a recurring motif in Ōe's writings since.
In 1994 Ōe won the Nobel Prize in Literature and was named to receive Japan's Order of Culture. He refused the latter because it is bestowed by the Emperor. Ōe said, "I do not recognize any authority, any value, higher than democracy." Once again, he received threats.
In 2005, two retired Japanese military officers sued Ōe for libel for his 1970 essay, Okinawa Notes, in which he had written that members of the Japanese military had coerced masses of Okinawan civilians into committing suicide during the Allied invasion of the island in 1945. In March 2008, the Osaka District Court dismissed all charges against Ōe. In this ruling, Judge Toshimasa Fukami stated, "The military was deeply involved in the mass suicides". In a news conference following the trial, Ōe said, "The judge accurately read my writing."
Ōe has been involved with pacifist and anti-nuclear campaigns and has written books regarding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Hibakusha. Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, he urged Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda to "halt plans to restart nuclear power plants and instead abandon nuclear energy". Ōe has said Japan has an "ethical responsibility" to abandon nuclear power in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, just as it renounced war under its postwar Constitution. He has called for "an immediate end to nuclear power generation and warned that Japan would suffer another nuclear catastrophe if it tries to resume nuclear power plant operations". In 2013, he organized a mass demonstration in Tokyo against nuclear power. Ōe has also criticized moves to amend Article 9 of the Constitution, which forever renounces war.
Ōe explained, shortly after learning that he'd been awarded the Nobel Prize, "I am writing about the dignity of human beings".
After his first student works set in his own university milieu, in the late 1950s he produced works such as 飼育 (Shiiku), about a black GI set upon by Japanese youth (made into a film, "The Catch" by Nagisa Oshima in 1961) and Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids, focusing on young children living in Arcadian transformations of Ōe's own rural Shikoku childhood. He later identified these child figures as belonging to the 'child god' archetype of Jung and Kerényi, which is characterised by abandonment, hermaphrodism, invincibility, and association with beginning and end. The first two characteristics are present in these early stories, while the latter two features come to the fore in the 'idiot boy' stories which appeared after the birth of Hikari.
Between 1958 and 1961 Ōe published a series of works incorporating sexual metaphors for the occupation of Japan. He summarised the common theme of these stories as "the relationship of a foreigner as the big power [Z], a Japanese who is more or less placed in a humiliating position [X], and, sandwiched between the two, the third party [Y] (sometimes a prostitute who caters only to foreigners or an interpreter)". In each of these works, the Japanese X is inactive, failing to take the initiative to resolve the situation and showing no psychological or spiritual development. The graphically sexual nature of this group of stories prompted a critical outcry; Ōe said of the culmination of the series Our Times, "I personally like this novel [because] I do not think I will ever write another novel which is filled only with sexual words."
Ōe's next phase moved away from sexual content, shifting this time toward the violent fringes of society. The works which he published between 1961 and 1964 are influenced by existentialism and picaresque literature, populated with more or less criminal rogues and anti-heroes whose position on the fringes of society allows them to make pointed criticisms of it. Ōe's admission that Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn is his favorite book can be said to find a context in this period.
He explains, "I have always wanted to write about our country, our society and feelings about the contemporary scene. But there is a big difference between us and classic Japanese literature." In 1994, he explained that he was proud the Swedish Academy recognized the strength of modern Japanese literature and hoped the prize would encourage others.
According to Leo Ou-fan Lee writing in Muse, Ōe's latest works tend "toward bolder experiments with the technique of 'defamiliarization' by negotiating his narratives across several imaginary landscapes pertaining to painting, film, drama, music and architecture". Ōe believes that novelists have always worked to spur the imagination of their readers.
About his son Hikari
Ōe credits his son Hikari for influencing his literary career. Ōe tried to give his son a "voice" through his writing. Several of Ōe's books feature a character based on his son.
In Ōe's 1964 book, A Personal Matter, the writer describes the pain involved in accepting his brain-damaged son into his life. Hikari figures prominently in many of the books singled out for praise by the Nobel committee:
Hikari's life is the core of the first book published after Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize. The 1996 book, A Healing Family, celebrates the small victories in Hikari's life.
Hikari was a strong influence on Father, Where are you Going?, Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness, and The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away, three novels which rework the same premise—the father of a disabled son attempts to recreate the life of his own father, who shut himself away and died. The protagonist's ignorance of his father is compared to his son's inability to understand him; the lack of information about his father's story makes the task impossible to complete, but capable of endless repetition, and, "repetition becomes the fabric of the stories".
Ōe did not write much during the nearly two years (2006–2008) of his libel case. He is beginning a new novel, which The New York Times reported would feature a character "based on his father", a staunch supporter of the imperial system who drowned in a flood during World War II. Another projected character is a contemporary young Japanese woman who “rejects everything about Japan” and in one act tries to destroy the imperial order."
Ōe published a new book at the end of 2013. Named Bannen Yoshikishu and published by Kodansha (English title is In Late Style).
The novel is the sixth in a series with the main character of Kogito Choko, who can be considered Ōe's literary alter ego. The novel is also in a sense a culmination of the I-novels that Ōe has continued to write since his son was born mentally disabled in 1963.
In the novel, Choko loses interest in the novel he had been writing when the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami struck the Tohoku region on March 11, 2011. Instead, he begins writing about an age of catastrophe, as well as about the fact that he himself is approaching his late 70s.
- Akutagawa Prize, 1958.
- Shinchosha Literary Prize, 1964.
- Tanizaki Prize, 1967.
- Noma Prize, 1973.
- Yomiuri Prize, 1982.
- Jiro Osaragi Prize (Asahi Shimbun), 1983.
- Nobel Prize in Literature, 1994.
- Order of Culture, 1994 – refused.
- Legion of Honour, 2002.
In 2006, the Kenzaburō Ōe Prize was established to promote Japanese literary novels published in the last year. The winning work is selected solely by Ōe. The winner receives no cash award, but the novel is translated into other languages.
The number of Kenzaburo Ōe's works translated into English and other languages remains limited, so that much of his literary output is still only available in Japanese. The few translations have often appeared after a marked lag in time. Work of his has also been translated into Chinese, French, and German.
In a statistical overview of writings by and about Kenzaburo Ōe, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses roughly 700 works in 1,500+ publications in 28 languages and 27,000+ library holdings.
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
Books available in English
- Memushiri Kouchi, 1958 – Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids (translated by Paul Mackintosh and Maki Sugiyama)
- Sevuntiin, 1961 – Seventeen (translated by Luk Van Haute)
- Seiteki Ningen 1963 Sexual Humans, published as J (translated by Luk Van Haute)
- Kojinteki na taiken, 1964 – A Personal Matter (translated by John Nathan)
- Hiroshima noto, 1965 – Hiroshima Notes (translated by David L. Swain, Toshi Yonezawa)
- Man'en gannen no futtoboru, 1967 – The Silent Cry (translated by John Bester)
- Warera no kyōki wo ikinobiru michi wo oshieyo, 1969 – Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness (1977)
- Mizukara waga namida wo nuguitamau hi, 1972 – The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Awayin Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness (1977)
- Pinchiranna chosho,' 1976 – The Pinch Runner Memorandum (translated by Michiko N. Wilson)
- Atarashii hito yo mezame yo, 1983 – Rouse Up O Young Men of the New Age! (translated by John Nathan)
- Jinsei no shinseki, 1989 – An Echo of Heaven (translated by Margaret Mitsutani)
- Shizuka-na seikatsu, 1990 – A Quiet Life (translated by Kunioki Yanagishita & William Wetherall)
- Kaifuku suru kazoku, 1995 – A Healing Family (translated by Stephen Snyder, illustrated by Yukari Oe)
- Chugaeri, 1999 – Somersault (translated by Philip Gabriel)
- Torikae ko (Chenjiringu), 2000 – The Changeling (translated by Deborah Boehm)
- Suishi, 2009 – Death by Water (translated by Deborah Boehm).
|Year||Japanese Title||English Title||Comments|
Kimyou na shigoto
|The Strange Work||His first short story|
Shisha no ogori
|Lavish Are The Dead||Short story|
Tanin no ashi
|Someone Else's Feet||Short story|
|Prize Stock||Short story awarded the Akutagawa prize|
Miru mae ni tobe
|Leap before you look||Short story|
|Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids||His first novel|
|The sexual man (Also known as "J")||Short story|
Sora no kaibutsu Aguī
|Aghwee the Sky Monster||Short story|
Kojinteki na taiken
|A Personal Matter||Awarded the Shinchosha Literary Prize|
Genshuku na tsunawatari
|The Solemn Rope-walking||Essay|
Man'en gan'nen no futtobōru
|The Silent Cry||Novel, awarded the Jun'ichirō Tanizaki prize|
Jizoku suru kokorozashi
Warera no kyōki wo ikinobiru michi wo oshieyo
|Teach Us to Outgrow Our Madness|
Kowaremono toshiteno ningen
|A Human Being as a fragile article||Essay|
Kakujidai no sozouryoku
|Imagination of the Atomic Age||Talk|
Kujira no shimetsu suru hi
|The Day Whales Vanish||Essay|
Mizukara waga namida wo nuguitamau hi
|The Day He Himself Shall Wipe My Tears Away|
Doujidai toshiteno sengo
|The Post-war Times as Contemporaries||Essay|
Kōzui wa waga tamashii ni oyobi
|The Flood Invades My Spirit||Awarded the Noma Literary Prize|
Pinchi ran'nā chōsho
|The Pinch Runner Memorandum|
|The Game of Contemporaneity|
|Sometimes the Heart of the Turtle|
Rein tsurī wo kiku on'natachi
|Women Listening to the "Rain Tree"||Awarded the Yomiuri Literary Prize|
Atarashii hito yo, mezameyo
|Rouse Up, O Young Men of the New Age!||Awarded the Jiro Osaragi prize|
Ikani ki wo korosu ka
|How Do We Kill the Tree ?|
Kaba ni kamareru
|Bitten by the Hippopotamus||Awarded the Yasunari Kawabata Literary Prize|
M/T to mori no fushigi no monogatari
|M/T and the Narrative About the Marvels of the Forest|
Natsukashī tosi eno tegami
|Letters for Nostalgic Years|
'Saigo no syousetu'
|'The Last Novel'||Essay|
Atarashii bungaku no tame ni
|For the New Literature||Essay|
Kirupu no gundan
|The Army of Quilp|
Jinsei no shinseki
|An Echo of Heaven||Awarded the Sei Ito Literary Prize|
|The Tower of Treatment|
Shizuka na seikatsu
|A Quiet Life|
Chiryou tou wakusei
|The Tower of Treatment and the Planet|
Boku ga hontou ni wakakatta koro
|The Time that I Was Really Young|
'Sukuinushi' ga nagurareru made
|Until the Savior Gets Socked||燃えあがる緑の木 第一部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai ichi bu|
The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy I
|Vacillating||燃えあがる緑の木 第二部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai ni bu|
The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy II
Ōinaru hi ni
|On the Great Day||燃えあがる緑の木 第三部 Moeagaru midori no ki dai san bu|
The Flaming Green Tree Trilogy III
Aimai na Nihon no watashi
|Japan, the Ambiguous, and Myself: The Nobel Prize Speech and Other Lectures||Talk|
|A Healing Family||Essay with Yukari Oe|
Torikae ko (Chenjiringu)
'Jibun no ki' no shita de
|Under the "Tree of Mine"||Essay with Yukari Oe|
Ureigao no dōji
|The Infant with a Melancholic Face|
'Atarashii hito' no hou he
|Toward the "New Man"||Essay with Yukari Oe|
Nihyaku nen no kodomo
|The Children of 200 Years|
Sayōnara, watashi no hon yo!
|Farewell, My Books!|
Routashi Anaberu rī souke dachitu mimakaritu
|The Beautiful Annabel Lee was Chilled and Killed|
|Death by Water|
Bannen Youshiki shū (In Reito Sutairu)
|In Late Style|
Ōe's Nobel lecture on 7 December 1994 entitled "Aimai na Nihon no watashi" (Japan, the Ambiguous and Myself) began with a commentary on his life as a child and how he was fascinated by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, which he used to take his mind off from the terror of World War II. He described surviving various hardships by using writing as an escape, "representing these sufferings of mine in the form of the novel," and how his son Hikari similarly uses music as a method of expressing "the voice of a crying and dark soul."
Ōe dedicated a large portion of his speech to his opinion of Yasunari Kawabata's acceptance speech, saying that the vagueness of Kawabata's title and his discussions of the poems written by medieval Zen monks were the inspiration for the title of his acceptance speech. Ōe, however, stated that rather than feeling spiritual affinity with his compatriot Kawabata, he felt more affinity with the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats, whose poetry had a significant effect on his writings and his life, even being a major inspiration for his trilogy, A Flaming Green Tree and the source of its title. Ōe stated, "Yeats is the writer in whose wake I would like to follow." He mentioned that based on his experiences of Japan, he cannot utter in unison with Kawabata the phrase "Japan, the Beautiful and Myself". Ōe also discussed the revival of militaristic feelings in Japan and the necessity for rejecting these feelings, and how Ōe desired to be of use in a cure and reconciliation of mankind.
- ^ ab"Oe, Pamuk: World needs imagination", Yomiuri.co.jp; May 18, 2008.
- ^"The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994: Kenzaburo Oe (biography)". Nobel media. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- ^ abcdWeston, Mark (1999). Giants of Japan: The Lives of Japan's Most Influential Men and Women. New York: Kodansha International. pp. 294–295, 299. ISBN 1-568362862.
- ^Kenzaburo Oe, The Art of Fiction No. 195The Paris Review
- ^Jaggi, Maya. "Profile: Kenzaburo Oë". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- ^Onishi, Norimitsu. "Japanese Court Rejects Defamation Lawsuit Against Nobel Laureate,"New York Times. March 29, 2008.
- ^"Nobel laureate Oe urges nation to end reliance on nuclear power". The Japan Times. September 8, 2011.
- ^Mainichi Daily News, September 15, 2013, "Some 8,000 March in Tokyo Against Restart of Any Nuclear Power Plants" (accessed November 10, 2013)
- ^Asahi Shumbun, 18 May 2013, "Writer Oe calls for stopping moves to revise Constitution" (accessed 9 November 2013)
- ^ abcSterngold, James. "Nobel in Literature Goes to Kenzaburo Oe of Japan,"New York Times. October 14, 1994.
- ^ abWilson, Michiko. (1986) The Marginal World of Ōe Kenzaburō: A Study in Themes and Techniques, p. 12.
- ^Ōe, The Method of a Novel, p. 197.
- ^Wilson, p. 135.
- ^Ōe, Ōe Kenzaburō Zensakuhin, Vol. 2 (Supplement No. 3). p. 16.
- ^Wilson p. 32.
- ^Wilson, p. 29.
- ^Wilson p. 47.
- ^Theroux, Paul. "Speaking of Books: Creative Dissertating; Creative Dissertating", nytimes.com, February 8, 1970.
- ^Lee, Leo Ou-fan (November 2009). "Always too late". Muse Magazine (34): 104.
- ^Sobsey, RichardArchived 2009-07-01 at the Wayback Machine.. "Hikari Finds His Voice," Canadian Broadcast Corporation (CBC), produced by Compassionate Healthcare Network (CHN). July 1995.
- ^Nobel Prize, 1994 laureate biography
- ^WorldCat IdentitiesArchived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.: Ōe, Hikari 1963–
- ^Wilson, p. 61.
- ^ abOnishi, Norimitsu. "Released From Rigors of a Trial, a Nobel Laureate’s Ink Flows Freely,"New York Times. May 17, 2008.
- ^"Oe's latest novel offers glimmer of hope in a world beset by catastrophe". Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- ^"Novelist Oe inducted into France's Legion of Honor. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2016-01-28.
- ^Liukkonen, Petri. "Kenzaburo Ōe". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.
- ^Tayler, Christopher. "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe." The Guardian. Friday June 11, 2010. Retrieved on November 9, 2012.
- ^Jing, Xiaolei. "Embracing Foreign Literature." Beijing Review. No. 7 February 19, 2009. Updated February 13, 2009. Retrieved on November 9, 2012.
- ^WorldCat IdentitiesArchived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.: Ōe, Kenzaburō 1935–
- Kimura, Akio. (2007) Faulkner and Oe: The Self-Critical Imagination. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.
- Rapp, Rayne and Faye Ginsburg. "Enabling Disability: Rewriting Kinship, Reimagining Citizenship." (Archive) Public Culture. Volume 13, Issue 3. p. 533–556.
- Ueda, Hozumi (上田 穗積 Ueda Hozumi). "Mice and Elephants, or Forests and Prairies : A Comparison of Ohe Kenzaburoh and Murakami Haruki" (鼠と象、あるいは森と平原 : 大江健三郎と村上春樹) (in Japanese)National Institute of Informatics (NII) Article ID (NAID) :40019369258. NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID) :AN10074725. ISSN 0910-3430. Journal Type :大学紀要. NDL Article ID :023863147. NDL Source Classification :ZV1(一般学術誌—一般学術誌・大学紀要). NDL Call No. :Z22-1315. Databases : NDL
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