Pharmacist Career Essay

A pharmacist is a healthcare professional who is a expert on pharmaceutical drugs and how they act to fight disease and improve the heath of the patient. Pharmacists are responsible for the implementation of drug therapy with the intention of improving the quality of a patient’s life. Some examples of such improvements include curing diseases, reducing or eliminating a patient’s symptoms, slowing the process of a disease, and preventing disease. A pharmacist works with patients and other healthcare professionals in order to design, implement, and monitor a drug therapy plan specifically designed for that patient. Not only do pharmacists advise doctors and patients on prescription drugs, but they also provide information on the best medications that can be purchased “over the counter”.

The most common goal of pharmacists is to move beyond their traditional role of simply dispensing medication and deal with patients more directly and on a more personal level. They strive to be a source of advice on medications for both heath-care professionals and patients. They also are dedicated to providing individualized services to patients. Such services include consultations and providing more understandable information about the side effects of the medications that the patient is receiving.

More than 1,000 years ago, religious and magic practitioners controlled the medical aspects of people’s lives. They believed that many aspects of disease were beyond observation, explanation, and control. The oldest known application of pharmacy was in ancient India and China. They based healing on the belief that disease was caused by spirits in the body. In Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, and parts of Greece the concept of purification from sin by a purgative existed. In second century Rome, Galen classified medicines by the affects that they had on the four humors of the body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. The systematic guide he created was, unfortunately, incorrect. Seventh century Arabs contributed a large amount of knowledge on the drugs available from that time through the Middle Ages. In 1240, the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, made great advancements in pharmacy by: issuing three regulations that separate the profession of pharmacy, instituting governmental supervision over pharmacy, and producing an oath that pharmacists had to take promising to prepare drugs reliably. The 19th century brought major pharmacy development throughout the United States. Pharmacy organizations, formal education of pharmacists, official pharmacy books (pharmacopoeias), and setting standards for the identity and purity of drugs are some examples of such developments. Some pharmacy unions that were developed during this time included the American Pharmaceutical Association (1852), the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (1958), and the Federation Internationale Pharmaceutique (1910) which is a worldwide organization base in the Netherlands. Major advancement has taken place in this field in the past 100 years, and pharmacists have started applying scientific method and principles to their work. Beginning in the 1960’s, pharmacists started to practice patient oriented functions, such as drug use review.

The job of a pharmacist consists of many roles. Specific duties vary according to the location of the job for example, community or retail pharmacists counsel patients, answer questions, provide information on over the counter drugs, make drug recommendations, provide advice medical equipment and home heath-care supplies, and, possibly, complete insurance forms and other paperwork. Community pharmacists may sell non-health related merchandise, and also hire and/or supervise other employees. Some community pharmacists provide specialized services such as helping patients with diabetes, asthma, smoking cessation, or high blood pressure. In hospitals and clinics, besides dispensing medications, pharmacists advise medical staff on selection of drugs, make sterile solutions, purchase medical supplies, counsel patients on drug use, and evaluate drug use patterns and outcomes. They are also responsible for assessing, planning, and monitoring drug therapy for patients. Pharmacists who participate in home healthcare are responsible for monitoring drug regimens and preparing infusions and other medications for home use.

Pharmacists are responsible for knowing how their patients manage their medication, they then analyze this regiment searching for problems. Next they determine and implement solutions for these problems and monitor their outcomes. Pharmacists are also responsible for dispensing drugs and providing information about them. Pharmacists must understand drug use, clinical effects, and drug composition (chemical, biological, and physical properties). The pharmacist’s role of making actual pharmaceutical agents is dwindling; and it is now a very small role due to pharmaceutical companies who make the drugs for them. Pharmacists are responsible for the accuracy of every prescription, lately they have been relying on pharmacy technicians and aides to assist them; pharmacists delegate tasks and supervise their outcomes. Finally, pharmacists are responsible for maintaining patient medication profiles in order to advise doctors on prescribing new medication.

Students who desire pursuing a career in pharmacy should achieve scientific aptitude, have good communication skills, a desire to help others, and conscientiousness. There are two entry-level degrees available for such students: a Bachelor of Science degree (BS) in pharmacy, or a PharmD. The BS takes five years to complete and will be obsolete after 2005. The PharmD is a six year program that makes the pharmacists most knowledgeable on medications and their use. The PharmD degree was designed for students with more laboratory and research experience. Many pharmacists who hold their master’s degree or Ph.D. work in research for drug companies or teach at universities. Pharmacists who own and run their own pharmacy may also obtain their MBA. Pharmacy colleges require two years of general pre-pharmacy education. These classes include mathematics and natural sciences such as chemistry, biology, and physics. Another requirement is courses in humanities and social sciences.

In 2000, the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education named 82 accredited colleges of pharmacy. Some of these colleges require that students take the Pharmacy College Admissions Test. All of these colleges offer courses in pharmacy practice in order to teach the dispensing of drugs, communication skills, and dealing with other health professionals. Such courses strengthen students understanding of professional ethics and practice managerial responsibilities. All pharmacists must know the drug laws, assessment skills, problem-solving approaches, and have managerial and communication abilities. Every pharmacist must obtain a license, however in order to do this they must serve under a licensed pharmacist, graduate form and accredited college, and pass a state exam. Some states require continued education for license renewal. For pharmacists there are many areas of graduate study such as pharmaceutics, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacy administration. Some pharmacists specialize in specific drug therapy areas. These areas include intravenous nutrition support, oncology, nuclear pharmacy, and pharmacotherapy.

There are many different places where pharmacists are needed; community pharmacies, hospitals, long-term care facilities, pharmaceutical companies, mail service, managed care, and in government are a few. There are approximately 112,000 community pharmacists, 66,000 pharmacists in chain pharmacies and 46,000 in self-owned pharmacies. As for the rest of pharmacists, there are 40,000 in hospitals, 21,000 in consulting, government, academics, and industry ( The median annual earnings for pharmacists in 2000 was $70,950. The middle 50% were between $61,860 and $81,690, the lowest 10 % earned less than $51,570, and the highest 10% made more than $89,010. Job location definitely effects earnings for pharmacists, the following are the median earnings in different locations: department store pharmacists earned $73,730, grocery store pharmacists earned $72,440, pharmacists in drug stores and proprietary stores made $72,110, and finally hospital pharmacists earned $68,760. The average starting base salary for full-time pharmacists was $67,824. Further compensation comes in such forms as bonuses, overtime, and profit sharing.

Working conditions for pharmacists are among the most favorable of all professions. Clean, well lit, ventilated areas are customary facilities. Pharmacists wear gloves and masks, along with other protective equipment on order to protect themselves. Although pharmacy may seem to be a good job with great benefits it does have its downfalls, for example, pharmacists are on their feet a lot, hours are unreliable, you may be required to work evenings, nights, weekends, and holidays, consultant pharmacists often travel on order to monitor patients, and the job of a pharmacist is mentally demanding. Pharmacists are required to know the properties of thousands of drugs and learn hundreds of new drugs which are introduced every year. One out of seven pharmacists only worked part time in 2000, full time pharmacists work approximately 40 hours per week. Pharmacists in privately owned pharmacies averaged 50 or more hours a week. Pharmacists held about 217,000 jobs on 2000. Six out of ten in community pharmacies, 21 % in hospitals, and all others in clinics, mail-order pharmacies, pharmaceutical wholesalers, home health agencies, or in government.

Room for advancement in the field of pharmacy is limited; it all depends on the location or site of each individual job. In community pharmacies, most new employees start on the “staff” level and can advance to the managerial, part owner, or owner status. In chain drug stores, pharmacists begin as staff, may become the pharmacy supervisor or manager at the store level, may obtain responsibilities at the district or regional level, and could possibly rise to an executive position within the headquarters of the company. The highest level of advancement for hospital pharmacists is supervisory or administrative positions. In the pharmaceutical industries, pharmacists can obtain positions in marketing, sales, research, quality control, production, or packaging.

The job outlook for pharmacists is very hopeful. Currently there are more job openings than degrees being granted. This is the case due to the increased needs of a growing older population, scientific advances, new developments in genome research and medication distribution system, and more sophisticated consumers. Due to declining dispensing fees, pharmacists are trying to increase prescription volume; automated drug dispensing will be implemented which will raise the demand for pharmacy technicians and aides. Due to the increasing number of chain drugstores, the need for community pharmacies is dwindling, therefore retail pharmacies are expected to have faster than average employment growth. The need for pharmacists in hospitals is expected to grow as fast as average although their services are shifting toward long-term, ambulatory, and home healthcare. New opportunities for pharmacists are developing rapidly, such opportunities exist in managed care organizations (analyzing trends and patterns in medication use), research, disease management, and pharmacoeconomics (determining costs and benefits of different drug therapies). According to the California projections of Employment, the estimated number of jobs for pharmacists in 2005 is 18,550 (in California). The role of the dispensing pharmacist is in most danger. Due to automated filling and the use of pharmacy technicians these pharmacy jobs are becoming obsolete.

Pharmacists play very important roles in the everyday lives of many people. From dispensing medications to advising consumers on the most effective products, pharmacists effect most every citizen’s life every day.

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Pharmacy careers have always been some of the most favorable and rewarding in the medical industry. Different kinds of pharmacists have been around for hundreds of years, as there always has been and will be a need for medicine in our society. Becoming a Doctor of Pharmacy is very demanding schooling wise. Completing the schooling requirement can sometimes take up to eight years. The profession offers many different fields of work and all of them are equally rewarding. The practice of pharmacy started with the first humans to walk the Earth.

When the first person extracted juice from a plant to apply to a wound, the art of pharmacy was already being practiced (“History”). In Greek legend, Asclepius, the god of the healing art, granted Hygieia the duty of compounding his remedies (“History”). She was his apothecary or what is now called a pharmacist. The physician-priests of Egypt were divided into two classes: those who visited the sick and those who remained in the temple and prepared remedies for the patients (“History”).

In ancient Greece and Rome and also during the Middle Ages in Europe, the practice of pharmacy recognized a separation between the duties of the physician and those of the herbalist, which supplied the physician with the raw materials from which to formulate Peterson 2 medicines (“History”). The Arabian influence in Europe during the eighth century A. D. brought about the practice of separate duties for the pharmacists and physicians (“History”). Specialization was later reinforced by a law enacted by the city council of Bruges in 1683, which forbid physicians to prepare medications for their patients (“History of”).

In America, Benjamin Franklin had a large part in keeping the two professions separate when he appointed an apothecary to the Pennsylvania Hospital (“History”). After World War II, the pharmacy industry essentially boomed. The growth of the pharmacy industry led to the discovery and use of new, more effective drug substances. This period of time also changed the role of the pharmacist dramatically. Pharmacists no longer had the daunting task of formulating and compounding medicines by hand (“History”).

The pharmacist continued, however, to fulfill the prescriber’s intentions by providing advice and information; by formulating, storing, and providing correct dosage forms; and by assuring the efficiency and quality of the dispensed and supplied medicinal products (“History”). A career in pharmacy offers several different areas of work within the pharmaceutical industry. The skills required for each of the four main areas of pharmacy do vary somewhat. The most important skills needed to be a pharmacist are in the science field of study. Pharmacists must be able to effectively learn and comprehend the subjects of chemistry and biology.

Other important qualities to have include patience and social skills. The most common type of pharmacist today is a community pharmacist. A community Peterson 3 pharmacist is one that deals directly with people in a local area. Most often, these types of pharmacists work in retail store pharmacies. Most of the pharmacists in the United States today are community pharmacists (“Pharmacists”). They have several responsibilities including compounding, counseling, checking, and dispensing prescription drugs to patients with care, accuracy, and legality (“Pharmacists”).

It is an essential branch of the pharmacy profession and involves a registered pharmacist with the education, skills, and competence to deliver the professional service to the communities around them (“Pharmacist Job”). Another important type of pharmacist is a clinical pharmacist. Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics (“Carr”).

Clinical pharmacists often collaborate with physicians and other healthcare professionals to decide what is best for the patient (“Pharmacists”). Most clinical pharmacists have extensive education in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, socio-behavioral, and clinical sciences. Now that it is required, most clinical pharmacists have a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D. ) degree and many have completed one or more years of post-graduate training or residency programs (“Carr”). Many clinical pharmacists also choose to become Board Certified through the Board of Pharmacy Specialties.

Consultant pharmacy is now becoming more popular in the range of pharmacy careers. A consultant pharmacist focuses on reviewing and managing the medication of patients, Peterson 4 particularly those in institutional settings such as nursing homes or hospitals. Consultant pharmacists ensure their patient’s medications are appropriate, effective, safe, and used correctly (“Potter”). They also try and identify, resolve, and prevent medication related problems that may interfere with other drugs and the goals of therapy (“Potter”).

Physicians, nurses, and administrators recognize consultant pharmacists for their clinical and administrative skills and the contributions they make to appropriate drug use and positive patient care outcomes. Consultant pharmacists often work in nursing homes and for other healthcare providers (“Why”). Excellent communication skills are crucial to effective consultant pharmacy practice. Committee participation, recommendations to physicians, administrative reports, interactions with facility staff and patients and educational programs all require strong verbal and written communication skills (“Why”).

The last of the major areas of pharmacy is the pharmaceutical industry pharmacists. There are even many categories within the pharmaceutical industry to work in such as marketing, sales, and R&D. In marketing, a pharmacist will create everything but the medicine itself. They will create packaging for the medicine that is cost effective and is appealing to consumers. Also, they will make advertisements for the new medicines. In sales, a pharmacist will go around to several different medicinal companies potentially even around the world trying to market the newly created medicines.

In R&D, (research and development), a pharmacist or group of pharmacists will experiment with many new chemicals and compounds to design new medicines to better address a specific medical problem. Peterson 5 The first step to obtaining a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D. ) degree is to complete the pre-pharmacy requirements. The Doctor of Pharmacy degree requires six years of academic study. The two year pre-pharmacy portion may be taken at any accredited two or four year college (“Pre-Pharmacy”).

The pre-pharmacy requirements of about sixty-eight credit hours include a year each of English, general chemistry, organic chemistry, calculus, interpersonal communications, biology, microbiology, human anatomy, physiology, and at least nine hours of general studies in the humanities or social sciences (“Doctor”). The total general studies requirement is thirty hours and includes English, calculus, interpersonal communications, humanities, social sciences, and other electives (“Pre-Pharmacy”). A Pharm.

D degree prepares students to become pharmacy practitioners in a wide variety of settings, including community and retail pharmacies, hospitals, managed care facilities, and many more. Students enter the Pharm. D program after they complete the two year pre-pharmacy requirements. The pre-pharmacy classes may be taken at any accredited university or community college. Admitted students spend four years in the Pharm. D program which includes one year of clinical rotations (“Carr”). The curriculum includes instruction in the three basic sciences; medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and pharmacology & toxicology, as well as in the

various aspects of pharmacy practice, including the health care system, law, and the emerging roles for pharmacy practitioners (“Doctor”). The final year of the curriculum consists of nine four week rotations with faculty at practice sites throughout the state of Kansas (“Carr”) These sites include, but are not limited to: K. U. Medical Center in Kansas City and Wichita, and other sites in Lawrence, Topeka, Kansas City, Salina, Hays, and Peterson 6 Garden City (“Doctor”). The salary for pharmacists can vary slightly depending on what type a pharmacist a person is practicing as.

For a retail pharmacist, the average salary is about $116,670 per year (“Pharmacists”). The lowest ten percent of pharmacists earned less than $89,280, and the top ten percent earned more than $145,910 (“Pharmacists”). According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook, employment of pharmacists is projected to grow fourteen percent between 2012 and 2022, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Several factors are likely to contribute to this increase. As the population is aging, elderly people typically use more prescription medicines than the younger generations.

Higher rates of chronic diseases such as diabetes among all age groups will also lead to increased demand for prescription medications. In addition, scientific advances will lead to new drug products. As healthcare continues to become more complex, and as more people take multiple medications, more pharmacists will be needed to dispense medications and to counsel patients on how to use their medications safely and effectively (“Pharmacists”). The number of individuals who have access to health insurance will increase as federal health insurance reform legislation is enacted.

As more people have access to health insurance, more pharmacists will be needed to fill their prescriptions and to consult with patients about their medications. Demand is also likely to increase for pharmacists in a variety of healthcare settings, including hospitals and clinics. These facilities will need more pharmacists to oversee the medications given to patients and to provide patient care, performing tasks such as testing a patient’s blood Peterson 7 sugar or cholesterol levels (“Pharmacists”). There are many job options with a pharmacy degree.

There are a least five fields of pharmacy: retail, community, consultant, industry, and even nuclear (“Potter”). They all vary so that there will always be an option that will suit a person’s interests. For each of the different fields, there is also a variety of working environments. The working conditions for pharmacists will vary upon the field of pharmacy they are working in. One of the major benefits of pharmacy is the flexible schedule often offered. In all of the fields of pharmacy, the working hours are somewhat limited.

In retail pharmacies, the pharmacy usually will not open until nine in the morning and closes around four or five in the afternoon. Most pharmacists will not have to work nights and some not even weekends, unless working in a hospital setting with doctors, or are an on-call pharmacist, in which they must be available twenty-four/seven. One downside to being a pharmacist is that they must be on their feet the entire day (“Pharmacist Overview”). One other concern for pharmacists is maintaining a clean license. A single error in dispensing medication can have catastrophic results and damage one’s career (“Pharmacist Jobs”).

In 2012, pharmacists held two hundred eighty-six thousand, four hundred jobs (“Pharmacists”). Forty-three percent of those worked in pharmacies and drug stores, while twenty-three percent worked in hospitals (“Pharmacists”). Another eight percent, five percent, and five percent worked in grocery stores, department stores, and general merchandise stores, respectively (“Pharmacists”). Peterson 8 A pharmacy technician profession is very closely related to that of a pharmacist. A pharmacy technician is just a step below an actual doctor of pharmacy.

To become a pharmacy technician, schooling wise, all a person needs is a high school diploma (“Pharmacy Technicians”). Pharmacy technicians help licensed pharmacists dispense prescription medication to customers and health professionals. Pharmacy technicians work under the supervision of pharmacists, who must review prescriptions before they are given to patients. In most states, technicians can compound or mix some medications and call physicians for prescription refill authorizations (“Pharmacy”). Technicians also may need to operate automated dispensing equipment when filling prescription orders.

Pharmacy technicians working in hospitals and other medical facilities prepare a greater variety of medications, such as intravenous medications (“Pharmacy Technicians”). They may make rounds in the hospital, administering medication to patients. Another similar occupation to that of a pharmacist is a biochemist. Biochemists study the chemical and physical principles of living things and of biological processes, such as cell development, growth, and heredity (“Biochemists”). Biochemists need a Ph. D. to work in independent research and development positions. Most Ph. D.

holders begin their careers in temporary postdoctoral research positions. Bachelor’s and master’s degree holders are qualified for some entry level positions in biochemistry. Biochemists use advanced technologies such as electron microscopes and lasers to conduct scientific experiments and analyze them (“Biochemists”). They use computer modeling software to determine the three-dimensional structures of proteins and other molecules (“Biochemists”). They also research the effects of Peterson 9 substances, such as drugs, hormones, and food on tissues and biological processes (“Biochemists”).

A career in pharmacy is one of the best in the medical industry. The career is very demanding mentally and physically, but the rewards and benefits vastly outweigh the negatives of the career. It is a worthwhile investment of time, as the field of pharmacy continues to grow each year. Obtaining a career in the pharmacy industry makes a good living while still being flexible with work schedules. The career caters to a large amount of individuals and offers endless amounts of potential. Peterson 10

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