This article is about energy crises in general. For other uses, see Oil crisis.
An energy crisis is any significant bottleneck in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place, in particular those that supply national electricity grids or those used as fuel in vehicles.
Industrial development and population growth have led to a surge in the global [energy demand|demand for energy]] in recent years. In the 2000s, this new demand — together with Middle East tension, the falling value of the U.S. dollar, dwindling oil reserves, concerns over [peak oil], and oil price speculation — triggered the 2000s energy crisis, which saw the price of oil reach an all-time high of $147.30 a barrel in 2008.
Most energy crisis have been caused by localized shortages, wars and market manipulation. Some have argued that government actions like tax hikes, nationalisation of energy companies, and regulation of the energy sector, shift supply and demand of energy away from its economic equilibrium. However, the recent historical energy crisis listed below were not caused by such factors. Market failure is possible when monopoly manipulation of markets occurs. A crisis can develop due to industrial actions like union organized strikes and government embargoes. The cause may be over-consumption, aging infrastructure, choke point disruption or bottlenecks at oil refineries and port facilities that restrict fuel supply. An emergency may emerge during very cold winters due to increased consumption of energy.
Large fluctuations and manipulations in future derivatives can have a substantial impact on price. Large investment banks control 80% of oil derivatives as of May 2012, compared to 30% only a decade ago. This increase contributed to an improvement of global energy output from 117 687 TWh in 2000 to 143 851TWh in 2008. Limitations on free trade for derivatives could reverse this trend of growth in energy production. Kuwaiti Oil Minister Hani Hussein stated that "Under the supply and demand theory, oil prices today are not justified," in an interview with Upstream.
Pipeline failures and other accidents may cause minor interruptions to energy supplies. A crisis could possibly emerge after infrastructure damage from severe weather. Attacks by terrorists or militia on important infrastructure are a possible problem for energy consumers, with a successful strike on a Middle East facility potentially causing global shortages. Political events, for example, when governments change due to regime change, monarchy collapse, military occupation, and coup may disrupt oil and gas production and create shortages. Fuel shortage can also be due to the excess and useless use of the fuels.
- 2000s energy crisis - Since 2003, a rise in prices caused by continued global increases in petroleum demand coupled with production stagnation, the falling value of the U.S. dollar, and a myriad of other secondary causes.
- 2008 Central Asia energy crisis, caused by abnormally cold temperatures and low water levels in an area dependent on hydroelectric power. At the same time the South African President was appeasing fears of a prolonged electricity crisis in South Africa."Mbeki in pledge on energy crisis". Financial Times. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- In February 2008 the President of Pakistan announced plans to tackle energy shortages that were reaching crisis stage, despite having significant hydrocarbon reserves,. In April 2010, the Pakistani government announced the Pakistan national energy policy, which extended the official weekend and banned neon lights in response to a growing electricity shortage.
- South African electrical crisis. The South African crisis led to large price rises for platinum in February 2008 and reduced gold production.
- China experienced severe energy shortages towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008. During the latter crisis they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages. Supplies of electricity in Guangdong province, the manufacturing hub of China, are predicted to fall short by an estimated 10 GW. In 2011 China was forecast to have a second quarter electrical power deficit of 44.85 - 49.85 GW.
- The Economist predicted that in the years after 2009 the United Kingdom will suffer an energy crisis due to its commitments to reduce coal-fired power stations, its politicians' unwillingness to set up new nuclear power stations to replace those that will be de-commissioned, and unreliable sources and sources that are running out of oil and gas. It is therefore predicted that the UK may have regular blackouts like South Africa.
- Nepal experienced severe energy crisis in 2015 when India created an economic blockade to Nepal. Nepal faced the shortages of various kinds of petroleum products and food materials which affected severely on Nepal's economy.
- The Gaza electricity crisis is a result of the tensions between Hamas, who rules the Gaza Strip, and the Palestinian Authority/Fatah, who rules the West Bank over custom tax revenue, funding of the Gaza Strip, and political authority. Residents receive electricity for a few hours a day on a rolling blackout schedule.
Emerging oil shortage
Main articles: Oil depletion and Peak oil
“Peak oil” is the period when the maximum rate of global petroleumextraction is reached, after which the rate of production enters terminal decline. It relates to a long-term decline in the available supply of petroleum. This, combined with increasing demand, significantly increases the worldwide prices of petroleum derived products. Most significant is the availability and price of liquid fuel for transportation.
The US Department of Energy in the Hirsch report indicates that “The problems associated with world oil production peaking will not be temporary, and past 'energy crisis' experience will provide relatively little guidance.”
Main article: Mitigation of peak oil
To avoid the serious social and economic implications a global decline in oil production could entail, the 2005 Hirsch report emphasized the need to find alternatives, at least ten to twenty years before the peak, and to phase out the use of petroleum over that time. Such mitigation could include energy conservation, fuel substitution, and the use of unconventional oil. Because mitigation can reduce the use of traditional petroleum sources, it can also affect the timing of peak oil and the shape of the Hubbert curve.
Energy policy may be reformed leading to greater energy intensity, for example in Iran with the 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran, Canada and the National Energy Program and in the USA with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 also called the Clean Energy Act of 2007. Another mitigation measure is the setup of a cache of secure fuel reserves like the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in case of national emergency. Chinese energy policy includes specific targets within their 5-year plans.
Andrew McKillop has been a proponent of a contract and converge model or capping scheme, to mitigate both emissions of greenhouse gases and a peak oil crisis. The imposition of a carbon tax would have mitigating effects on an oil crisis. The Oil Depletion Protocol has been developed by Richard Heinberg to implement a powerdown during a peak oil crisis. While many sustainable development and energy policy organisations have advocated reforms to energy development from the 1970s, some cater to a specific crisis in energy supply including Energy-Quest and the International Association for Energy Economics. The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre and the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas examine the timing and likely effects of peak oil.
Ecologist William Rees believes that
|“||To avoid a serious energy crisis in coming decades, citizens in the industrial countries should actually be urging their governments to come to international agreement on a persistent, orderly, predictable, and steepening series of oil and natural gas price hikes over the next two decades.||”|
Due to a lack of political viability on the issue, government mandated fuel prices hikes are unlikely and the unresolved dilemma of fossil fuel dependence is becoming a wicked problem. A global soft energy path seems improbable, due to the rebound effect. Conclusions that the world is heading towards an unprecedented large and potentially devastating global energy crisis due to a decline in the availability of cheap oil lead to calls for a decreasing dependency on fossil fuel.
Other ideas concentrate on design and development of improved, energy-efficient urban infrastructure in developing nations. Government funding for alternative energy is more likely to increase during an energy crisis, so too are incentives for oil exploration. For example, funding for research into inertial confinement fusion technology increased during the 1970s.
Kirk Sorensen and others have suggested that additional nuclear power plants, particularly liquid fluoride thorium reactors have the energy density to mitigate global warming and replace the energy from peak oil, peak coal and peak gas. The reactors produce electricity and heat so much of the transportation infrastructure should move over to electric vehicles. However, the high process heat of the molten salt reactors could be used to make liquid fuels from any carbon source.
2010s oil glut
Main article: 2010s oil glut
Rather counterintuitively, the world economy has had to deal with the unforeseen consequences of the 2015-2016 oil glut also known as 2010s oil glut, a major energy crisis that took many experts by surprise. This oversupply crisis started with a considerable time-lag, more than six years after the beginning of the Great Recession: "the price of oil [had] stabilized at a relatively high level (around $100 a barrel) unlike all previous recessionary cycles since 1980 (start of First Persian Gulf War). But nothing guarantee[d] such price levels in perpetuity".
Social and economic effects
Main articles: Energy economics and Renewable energy commercialization
The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large, because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally engineered rolling blackouts during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause.
Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. An early response from stakeholders is the call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels. There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure.
In the market, new technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs. January 30, 2008 Planet Ark. Examples include:
Other responses include the development of unconventional oil sources such as synthetic fuel from places like the Athabasca Oil Sands, more renewable energy commercialization and use of alternative propulsion. There may be a Relocation trend towards local foods and possibly microgeneration, solar thermal collectors and other green energy sources.
Tourism trends and gas-guzzler ownership varies with fuel costs. Energy shortages can influence public opinion on subjects from nuclear power plants to electric blankets. Building construction techniques—improved insulation, reflective roofs, thermally efficient windows, etc.—change to reduce heating costs.
See also: Green building and Zero-energy building
An electricity shortage is felt most acutely in heating, cooking, and water supply. Therefore, a sustained energy crisis may become a humanitarian crisis.
If an energy shortage is prolonged a crisis management phase is enforced by authorities. Energy audits may be conducted to monitor usage. Various curfews with the intention of increasing energy conservation may be initiated to reduce consumption. For example, to conserve power during the Central Asia energy crisis, authorities in Tajikistan ordered bars and cafes to operate by candlelight."Crisis Looms as Bitter Cold, Blackouts Hit Tajikistan". NPR. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
In the worst kind of energy crisis energy rationing and fuel rationing may be incurred. Panic buying may beset outlets as awareness of shortages spread. Facilities close down to save on heating oil; and factories cut production and lay off workers. The risk of stagflation increases.
Fictional scenarios have been explored in:
- ^F. William Engdahl (Mar 18, 2012). "Behind Oil Price Rise: Peak Oil or Wall Street Speculation?". Axis of Logic. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ^Eenergiläget in Sweden 2012 figure 49000 and 53
- ^Associated Press (12 March 2012). "Kuwait says high oil price not justified". UpStreamOnline. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ^"Musharraf for emergency measures to overcome energy crisis". Associated Press of Pakistan. Retrieved 2008-02-10. [dead link]
- ^"Pakistan's PM announces energy policy to tackle crisis". BBC. April 22, 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- ^"Energy crisis upsets platinum market". Nature. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- ^"Coal shortage has China living on the edge". Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- ^"China's Guangdong faces severe power shortage". Reuters. 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- ^"TABLE-China power shortage forecasts by region". Reuters. 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2011-06-12.
- ^"How long till the lights go out?". The Economist. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
- ^Israel cannot shirk its responsibility for Gaza’s electricity crisis, B'Tselem, 16 Jan 2017
- ^Palestinian Authority halts payments for Israeli electricity to Gaza: Israel, Reuters, 27th April 2017
- ^Gaza’s electricity crisis sheds light on gap between social classes, al-Monitor, March 2016
- ^The humanitarian impact of Gaza’s electricity and fuel crisis, UN OCHA, March 2014
- ^DOE Hirsch Report
- ^Vittorio E. Pareto, Marcos P. Pareto. "The Urban Component of the Energy Crisis". SSRN 1221622.
- ^"Super Fuel: Thorium, The Green Energy Source For The Future", Macmillan, (c) 2012.
- ^Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (6 April 2014). "A GCC House Divided: Country Risk Implications of the Saudi-Qatari Rift". Al-Hayat. London. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UNEP SEFI, Frankfurt School, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011Archived 2013-01-13 at Archive.is
- ^Bergin, Tom (January 30, 2008). "High Oil Prices Boost Energy Efficiency - Report". www.planetark.org. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.
- The Power of Community: How Cuba Survived Peak Oil - examines the effect of cold war oil shortages during the Special Period.
- Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict by Michael Klare
- Half Gone: Oil, Gas, Hot Air and the Global Energy Crisis by Jeremy Leggett
- The Long Emergency by James Howard Kunstler, explores a psychology of previous investment
- Eating Fossil Fuels by Dale Allen Pfeiffer
- The Coming Oil Crisis by Colin Campbell
- Energy and American Society - disputes an energy crisis exists in 2007
- The Final Energy Crisis (2nd edition) ed by Sheila Newman (Pluto Press, London, 2008); a study of energy trends, prospects, assets and liabilities in different political systems and regions
- The End of Oil by Paul Roberts
- Sustainable energy - Without the Hot Air, David J.C. MacKay, 384 pages, UIT Cambridge (2009) ISBN 978-0954452933
- 2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future, Gerard K. O'Neill, 284 pages, Simon & Schuster (1981) ISBN 978-0671242572
- The Nuclear Imperative: A Critical Look at the Approaching Energy Crisis (More Physics for Presidents), Jeff Eerkens, 212 pages, Springer (2010) ISBN 978-9048186662
- Rocks, Lawrence; Runyon, Richard P (1972). The Energy Crisis. Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-501643.
- Rocks, Lawrence; Runyon, Richard P (1972). The Energy Crisis (paperback ed.). Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-501651.
Energy Crisis Essay Outline
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Pakistan Energy Sector
- Energy Supply
- Energy Consumption
- 3. Sources of Energy In Pakistan
- Non-Renewable Resources
- Renewable Resources
- Alternative Energy Sources
- 4. Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan
- Higher Consumption
- Less supply
- Energy theft
- 5. Recommendations and Solutions
Introduction: Energy is very much essential for all the activities of the daily life and that is why its deficiency can have sever impacts on the lives of the people as well as the economy of the state, and that is why it is considered to be one of the most significant fundamental rights of the people and is the most important obligation of the government to provide the people of the state with the required capacity of the Energy.
Pakistan Energy Sector: Pakistan in one of those countries which don’t have a very well equipped and stable infrastructure of the Energy sector for which it is not developed properly and that is one major Problem of Pakistan and core reason for which the country is facing sever and alarming energy crisis from the past one decade. The Government has not shown some positive intent and instead of planning for new projects of energy generation or from shifting from traditional means to something new and more effective they have relied on imposing the cost of the energy on the local people which has made it very difficult for the locals to pay the bills and hence, the problem is still their existing.
The difference between the demand and the supply of the energy is getting higher and higher which is even making the conditions worse. In the time span of 2009 and 2010 it was being reported that the energy supply per capita availability of energy declined by 0.64% but in the last year which was 2012 the decline has reached to almost 3.09%. in the modern scenario the energy consumption and energy supply gap is increasing by time to time as the current production of the Energy in Pakistan is almost 15,000 to 20,000 Mega Watt but at the same the production is just 11, 500 to 13, 000 Mega Watt so the deficit of 4,000 to 5,000 Mega Watt exists which is considered to be a huge difference.
Pakistan Energy consumption is increasing to a huge extent and that is why it is not just relying on the Electricity as there are a lot of Electricity Crisis in Pakistan too but at the same time which are also contributing in this regard of meeting the shortfall.
Sources of Energy in Pakistan: Pakistan do have the leverage of not only depending on the electricity traditional means of the generation of power and energy but at the same time they have many other sources but the only need is to plan them properly and more practically so that they can be used for the purpose of energy production.
Under the non renewable resources we do have Petroleum products, fossil fuels, Coal, Natural gas as in Pakistan the contribution of various sources of power are as follows;
- Gas: 43.7%
- Oil/Petroleum: 29.0%
- Electricity: 15.3%
- Coal: 10.4%
- LPG: 1.5%
In renewable resources we do have the hydro power system which can be increased and enhanced so that we can meet our demands and the short fall can be decreased.
Current Hydropower stations:
- Tarbella Dam : 3,478 MW
- Ghazi Brotha: 1450 MW
- Mangla 1,000 MW
- Warsak 240 MW
- Chashma 184 MW
Potential Hydropower stations:
- Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4500 MW
- Munda Dam – Swat river in Mohamand Agency 740 MW
- Kalabagh Dam 2400-3600 MW
- Bunji Dam 5400 MW
- Dasu Dam 3800 MW
In the alternate solutions for the meeting the demand and supply gap in Pakistan we need to establish those means of energy production which are not that much common in Pakistan, as in this process we can shift from the traditional means of generating energy, this will also enable us to generate more energy and will also help us to prevent the reserves of the oil and gas in our country. The alternate means of generating energy in Pakistan are;
- Agricultural Biomass and Biodiesel
Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan: The major causes and the reason which have contributing in to the power shortfall is the mainly due to the increasing populations, because as simple as that the population is increasing day by day in the state which is definitely increasing the demand of energy and that is increasing the demand to supply gap. Energy theft is also a curse which Pakistan is bearing in which people not only on domestic level but even commercially and industrially are doing energy theft in which they are consuming the energy on high levels but are not paying the concerned department and body for which that all energy is being drained in vein.
Recommendations & Solutions: The solutions of the energy crisis in Pakistan must be implemented and adopted on emergency basis and the main solution to the problem is that the administration should shift to more modernized means of production so that they can increase the level of production and should meet the demand and at the same time the responsibility also lies on the people of the state that they should play their role in reducing the consumption and saving the energy so that Pakistan can be brought out of this alarming situation and from this threatening problem.