Game Of Thrones Audio Book Length Bibliography

A Song of Ice and Fire (commonly abbreviated as ASoIaF) is an ongoing a series of epic fantasy novels by American novelist and screenwriter George R. R. Martin. Martin began writing the series in 1991 and the first volume was published in 1996. Originally planned as a trilogy, the series now consists of five published volumes; a further two are planned. In addition there are three prequel novellas currently available, with several more being planned, and a series of novella-length excerpts from the main Ice and Fire novels.

The story of A Song of Ice and Fire takes place in a fictional world, primarily on a continent called Westeros but also on a large landmass to the east, known as Essos.[1] Most of the characters are human but as the series progresses others are introduced, such as the cold and menacing supernatural Others from the far North and fire-breathing dragons from the East, both thought to be extinct by the humans of the story. There are three principal story lines in the series: the chronicling of a dynastic civil war for control of Westeros among several competing families; the rising threat of the Others, who dwell beyond an immense wall of ice that forms Westeros' northern border; and the ambition of Daenerys Targaryen, the exiled daughter of a king who was murdered in another civil war fifteen years before, to return to Westeros and claim her rightful throne. As the series progresses, the three story lines become increasingly interwoven and dependent upon each other.

The series is told in the third-person through the eyes of a number of point of view characters. By the end of the fourth volume, there have been seventeen such characters with multiple chapters and eight who only have one chapter apiece. Several new viewpoint characters are introduced by the conclusion of the fifth volume, setting the stage for the major events of the sixth novel.

Back story

A Song of Ice and Fire is set primarily in the fictional Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, a large, South American-sized continent with an ancient history stretching back some twelve thousand years. A detailed history reveals how seven kingdoms came to dominate this continent, and then how these seven nations were united as one by Aegon the Conqueror, of House Targaryen. Some 283 years after Aegon's Conquest, the Targaryens are overthrown in a civil war and King Robert I Baratheon, backed primarily by his friend Lord Eddard Stark and foster father Lord Jon Arryn, takes the Iron Throne. The novels, which begin fifteen years later, follow the fall-out from this event across three major storylines, set not only in Westeros but on the eastern continent as well.

The first storyline, set in the Seven Kingdoms themselves, chronicles a many-sided struggle for the Iron Throne that develops after King Robert's death. The throne is claimed by his son Joffrey, supported by his mother's powerful family, House Lannister. However, Lord Eddard Stark, King Robert's Hand, finds out Robert's children are illegitimate, and that the throne should therefore fall to the second of the three Baratheon brothers, Stannis. The charismatic and popular youngest brother, Renly, also places a claim, openly disregarding the order of precedence, with the support of the powerful House Tyrell. While the claimants battle for the Iron Throne, Robb Stark, Lord Eddard Stark's heir, is proclaimed King in the North as the northmen and their allies in the Riverlands seek to return to self-rule. Likewise, Balon Greyjoy also (re-)claims the ancient throne of his own region, the Iron Islands, with an eye toward independence. This so-called War of the Five Kings is the principal storyline of the first four novels; indeed, the fourth novel primarily concerns Westeros's recovery from it in the face of the coming winter and the political machinations of those seeking to gain in its aftermath. In the wake of the war, four of the five self-proclaimed kings have been killed, leaving Stannis as the sole survivor. The Iron Throne is currently held by Tommen Baratheon, allegedly Robert's son, but illegitimate too. His former regent, Cersei Lannister has been deposed and imprisoned in King's Landing by the Faith. Stannis and his army, having gained little support from the Great Houses of Westeros, are presently at the Wall, far to the north where Stannis seeks to protect the realm from the threat of invasion, and simultaneously win the favor of the northern strongholds.

The second storyline is set on the extreme northern border of Westeros. Here, many thousands of years ago, a huge wall of ice and gravel was constructed by both magic and labor to defend Westeros from the threat of the Others, a race of now-mythical creatures living in the uttermost north. This Wall, 300-mile-long, 700-foot-tall, is defended and maintained by the Sworn Brotherhood of the Night's Watch, whose duty is to guard the kingdom against the Others. By the time of the novels, the Others have not been seen in over 8,000 years, and the Night's Watch has devolved into essentially a penal colony: it is badly under-strength, manned primarily by criminals and refugees, with only a few knights or men of honor to stiffen them, and spends most of its time dealing with the human "wildlings" or "free folk" who live beyond the Wall. This storyline is told primarily through the eyes of Jon Snow, bastard son of Lord Eddard Stark, as he rises through the ranks of the Watch, learns the true nature of the threat from the north, and prepares to defend the realm, even though the people of Westeros are too busy warring to send support. By the end of the third volume, this storyline is somewhat entangled with the civil war to the south.

The third storyline is set on the huge eastern continent of Essos, across the narrow sea, and follows the adventures of Daenerys Targaryen, the last scion of House Targaryen in exile and another claimant to the Iron Throne. Daenerys's adventures showcase her growing ability as she rises from a pauper sold into a dynastic marriage to a barbarian warlord to a powerful and canny ruler in her own right. Her rise is aided by the birth of three dragons, creatures thought long extinct, from fossilized eggs given to her as wedding gifts. Because her family standard is the dragon, these creatures are of symbolic value before they have grown big enough to be of tactical use. Though her story is separated from the others by many thousands of miles, her stated goal is to reclaim the Iron Throne.

The eponymous song of ice and fire is mentioned only once in the series, in a vision Daenerys sees in A Clash of Kings: "He is the prince that was promised, and his is the song of ice and fire", spoken by a Targaryen (probably Daenerys's dead older brother Rhaegar Targaryen) about his infant son named Aegon. It is implied that there is a connection between the song, the promise, and Daenerys herself. This is established more clearly in A Feast for Crows, when Aemon Targaryen identifies Daenerys as the heir that was promised. The phrase "ice and fire" is also mentioned in the Reeds' oath of loyalty to Bran in A Clash of Kings. However, the song and the promise are never mentioned again, and the song itself remains a mystery.

Themes of the novels

The books are known for complex characters, sudden and often violent plot twists, and political intrigue. In a genre where magic usually takes center stage, this series has a reputation for its limited and subtle use of magic, employing it as an ambiguous and often sinister background force.[2] Finally, the novels do not (presently) center around a climactic clash between "Good" and "Evil"; plot lines have revolved primarily around political infighting and civil war, with only one or two storyline arcs even suggesting the possibility of an external threat.

The novels are narrated from a very strict third person limited omniscient perspective, the chapters alternating between different point of view characters. Martin's treatment of his characters makes them extremely hard to classify: very few can be labeled as "good" or "evil". The author also has a reputation of not being afraid to kill any character, no matter how major.

Concept and creation

See also: Themes in A Song of Ice and Fire

Background and Origins

Martin had a longtime love of miniature knights and medieval history, but his early novels and short stories mostly fit into the science fiction and horror genres; however, eventually several fantasy stories did appear, such as The Ice Dragon, which he later turned into an illustrated children's book by the same name.[3] In the mid-1980s, Martin worked mainly in Hollywood, principally as a writer or producer on The New Twilight Zone and Beauty and the Beast. After Beauty and the Beast ended in 1989, Martin returned to writing prose and started work on a science fiction novel called Avalon. In 1991, while struggling with this story, Martin conceived of a scene where several youngsters find a dead direwolf with a stag's antler in its throat. The direwolf has birthed several pups, which are then taken by the youngsters to raise as their own. Martin's imagination was fired by this idea, and he eventually developed this scene into an epic fantasy story, which he first envisaged as a trilogy consisting of the novels A Game of Thrones, A Dance with Dragons and The Winds of Winter. Martin had apparently not been previously inspired by the genre, but reading Tad Williams' Memory, Sorrow, and Thorn series convinced him it could be approached in a more adult and mature way than previous authors had attempted.

After a lengthy hiatus spent writing and producing a television pilot for a science fiction series he had created called Doorways, Martin resumed work in 1994 on A Game of Thrones and completed it the following year, although he was only partway through his initial plan for the first novel. As a result, over time, Martin eventually expanded his plan for the series to include four books, then six, and finally seven, as the tale "grew in the telling," he said, quoting epic fantasy master J.R.R. Tolkien. Publication of A Game of Thrones followed in 1996. In the UK, the book was the subject of a fierce bidding war, eventually won by HarperCollins for £450,000.[4] Pre-release publicity included publication of a "sample novella" called Blood of the Dragon, which went on to win the 1997 Hugo Award for Best Novella. To fit A Game of Thrones into one volume, Martin had pulled out the last quarter or so of the book and made it the opening section of the second book, 1998's A Clash of Kings. In May 2005 Martin noted that his manuscript for A Game of Thrones had been 1088 pages long without the appendices, and A Clash of Kings was even longer at 1184 pages.[5]

Historic Influences

Numerous parallels have been seen between the events and characters in A Song of Ice and Fire and events and people involved in the Wars of the Roses. Two of the principal families in A Song of Ice and Fire, the Starks and the Lannisters, are seen as representing the historical House of York and House of Lancaster, respectively.

A similar reality-inspired conflict is the succession struggle called the Dance of the Dragons between two children Aegon II and Rhaenyra. A historical struggle (labeled The Anarchy) between Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, and her cousin Stephen of Blois, provides the inspiration. Each daughter is announced as her father's successor, but due to differing reasons, male rivals seize the crown and are anointed as rulers. During the dynastic struggle, the rival claimants are deposed and succeeded by the son (Aegon III Targaryen and Henry II of England respectively) of the original designated heir. Neither Empress Matilda nor Rhaenyra actually ruled in their own name.

Martin is an avid student of medieval Europe, and has said that the Wars of the Roses, along with many other events in Europe during that time, have influenced the series. However, he insists that "there's really no one-for-one character-for-character correspondence. I like to use history to flavor my fantasy, to add texture and verisimilitude, but simply rewriting history with the names changed has no appeal for me. I prefer to re-imagine it all, and take it in new and unexpected directions." [6]

Martin has also said the Albigensian Crusades are an influence for the series.

Literary Influences

Regarding content, there are some major differences between the series and much of the high fantasy genre, but its structure has much in common with The Lord of the Rings. Martin states, "Although I differ from Tolkien in important ways, I’m second to no one in my respect for him. If you look at Lord of the Rings, it begins with a tight focus and all the characters are together. Then by end of the first book the Fellowship splits up and they have different adventures. I did the same thing. Everybody is at Winterfell in the beginning except for Dany, then they split up into groups, and ultimately those split up too. The intent was to fan out, then curve and come back together. Finding the point where that turn begins has been one of the issues I’ve wrestled with."[7] Martin has acknowledged his debt to the works of J.R.R. Tolkien,[8]Jack Vance[9] and Tad Williams,[10] but the series differs from Tolkien's inspiration in its greater use of realistic elements. While Tolkien was inspired by mythology, A Song of Ice and Fire is more clearly influenced by medieval and early modern history, most notably Jacobitism and the Wars of the Roses.[11] Likewise, while Tolkien tended toward romantic relationships, Martin writes frankly of sex, including incest, adultery, prostitution, and rape. As a result, illegitimate children play prominent roles throughout the series. This has led to the series being cited as the forerunners of a 'gritty' new wave of epic fantasy authors that followed, including Scott Lynch[12] and Joe Abercrombie.[13] On his website, Martin has acknowledged historical fiction authors such as Bernard Cornwell and George MacDonald Fraser to be influences on the series. Martin has cited the cover blurb by Robert Jordan for the first book to have been influential in ensuring the series' early success with fantasy readers.[14]

Publishing history


Originally planned as a trilogy, the series now consists of five published volumes:

The remaining two novels are provisionally titled:

Additionally there are also three prequel novellas, set in the same world, roughly 90 years before the main events, commonly known as the "Tales of Dunk and Egg" after their main protagonists:

The Hedge Knight is also available as a graphic novel from Dabel Brothers Productions; an adaptation of The Sworn Sword is forthcoming from the same company. The author has said that he would like to write a number of these stories (varying from six to twelve from interview to interview) covering the entire lives of these two characters. Further, a collection containing the first three published Dunk and Egg novellas called A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms was published in 2015.

Additionally there are also three novellas based on chapter sets from the books, previously in collected form in other outlets.

Furthermore, Martin released a "history compendium", a companion book to the main series, and has announced a second and third.

First three novels (1991–2000)

George R. R. Martin was already a successful fantasy and sci-fi author and TV writer before writing his A Song of Ice and Fire book series.[15] Martin published his first short story in 1971 and his first novel in 1977.[16] By the mid-1990s, he had won three Hugo Awards, two Nebulas and other awards for his short fiction.[17] Although his early books were well received within the fantasy fiction community, his readership remained relatively small and Martin took on jobs as a writer in Hollywood in the mid-1980s.[17] He principally worked on the revival of The Twilight Zone throughout 1986 and on Beauty and the Beast from 1987 through 1990, but also developed his own TV pilots and wrote feature film scripts. Growing frustrated that none of his pilots and screenplays were getting made,[17] he was also getting tired of TV-related production limitations like budgets and episode lengths that often forced him to cut characters and trim battle scenes.[18] This pushed Martin back towards writing books, his first love, where he did not have to worry about compromising the magnitude of his imagination.[17] Admiring the works of J. R. R. Tolkien in his childhood, he wanted to write an epic fantasy but did not have any specific ideas.[19]

When Martin was between Hollywood projects in the summer of 1991, he started writing a new science fiction novel called Avalon. After three chapters, he had a vivid idea of a boy seeing a man's beheading and finding direwolves in the snow, which would eventually become the first non-prologue chapter of A Game of Thrones.[20] Putting Avalon aside, Martin finished this chapter in a few days and grew certain that it was part of a longer story.[21] After a few more chapters, Martin perceived his new book as a fantasy story[21] and started making maps and genealogies.[15] However, the writing of this book was interrupted for a few years when Martin returned to Hollywood to produce his TV series Doorways that ABC had ordered but eventually never aired.[18]

Martin resumed work on A Game of Thrones in 1994, selling the novel as part of a trilogy to his agent,[18] with the novels A Dance with Dragons and The Winds of Winter following.[22] Shortly afterwards, while still writing the novel, he felt the series needed to be four and eventually six books,[18] imagined as two linked trilogies of one long story.[23] Martin, who likes ambiguous fiction titles because he feels they enrich the writing, chose A Song of Ice And Fire as the overall series title: Martin saw the struggle of the cold Others and the fiery dragons as one possible meaning for "Ice and Fire", whereas the word "song" had previously appeared in Martin's book titles A Song for Lya and Songs of the Dead Men Sing, stemming from his obsessions with songs.[24]

The finished manuscript for A Game of Thrones was 1088 pages long (without the appendices),[25] with the publication following in August 1996.[26]Wheel of Time author Robert Jordan had written a short endorsement for the cover that was influential in ensuring the book's and hence series' early success with fantasy readers.[27] Released for pre-release publicity, a sample novella called Blood of the Dragon went on to win the 1997 Hugo Award for Best Novella.[28]

The second book called A Clash of Kings was released in February 1999 in the United States,[29] with a manuscript length (without appendices) of 1184 pages.[25]A Clash of Kings was the first book of the Ice and Fire series to make the best-seller lists,[18] reaching 13 on the The New York Times Best Seller list in 1999.[30] After the success of The Lord of the Rings film series, Martin received his first inquiries to the rights of the Ice and Fire series from various producers and filmmakers.[18]

Martin was several months late turning in the third book, A Storm of Swords.[17] The last chapter he had written was about the "Red Wedding", a scene notable for its violence two-thirds through the book (see Themes: Violence and death).[31]A Storm of Swords was 1521 pages in manuscript (without appendices),[25] causing problems for many of Martin's publishers around the world. Bantam Books published A Storm of Swords in a single volume in the United States in November 2000,[32] whereas some other-language editions were divided into two, three, or even four volumes.[25]A Storm of Swords debuted at number 12 in the New York Times bestseller list.[28][33]

Bridging the timeline gap (2000–2011)

After A Game of Thrones, A Clash of Kings, and A Storm of Swords, Martin originally intended to write three more books.[17] The fourth book, tentatively titled A Dance with Dragons, was to focus on Daenerys Targaryen's return to Westeros and the conflicts that creates.[23] Martin wanted to set this story five years after A Storm of Swords so that the younger characters could grow older and the dragons grow larger.[34] Agreeing with his publishers early on that the new book should be shorter than A Storm of Swords, Martin set out to write the novel closer in length to A Clash of Kings.[25] A long prologue was to establish what had happened in the meantime, initially just as one chapter of Aeron Damphair on the Iron Islands at the kingsmoot. Since the events in Dorne and the Iron Islands were to have an impact on the book, Martin eventually expanded the kingsmoot events to be told from three new viewpoints since the existing POV characters were not present in Dorne and the Iron Islands.[35]

In 2001, Martin was still optimistic that the fourth installment might be released in the last quarter of 2002.[24] However, the five-year gap did not work for all characters during writing. On one hand, Martin was unsatisfied with covering the events during the gap solely through flashbacks and internal retrospection. On the other hand, it was implausible to have nothing happening for five years.[34] After working on the book for about a year, Martin realized he needed an additional interim book, which he called A Feast for Crows.[34] The book would pick up the story immediately after the third book, and Martin scrapped the idea of a five-year gap.[24] The material of the 250-page prologue for the beginning of A Feast for Crows was mixed in as new viewpoint characters from Dorne and the Iron Islands.[35] As these expanded storylines affected the others, the plot became much more complicated for Martin.[36]

The manuscript length of A Feast For Crows eventually surpassed A Storm of Swords.[34] Martin was reluctant to make the necessary deep cuts to get the book down to publishable length, as that would have compromised the story he had in mind. Printing the book in "microtype on onion skin paper and giving each reader a magnifying glass" was also not an option for him.[25] On the other hand, Martin rejected the publishers' idea of splitting the narrative chronologically into A Feast for Crows, Parts One and Two.[37] Being already late with the book, Martin had not even started writing all characters' stories[38] and also objected ending the first book without any resolution for its many viewpoint characters and their respective stories as in previous books.[34]

Since the characters were spread out across the world,[22] a friend of Martin suggested to divide the story geographically into two volumes, of which A Feast for Crows would be the first.[37] Splitting the story this way would give Martin the room to complete his commenced story arcs as he had originally intended,[25] which he still felt was the best approach years later.[22] Martin moved the unfinished characters' stories set in the east (Essos) and north (Winterfell and the Wall) into the next book, A Dance with Dragons,[39] and left A Feast for Crows to cover the events on Westeros, King's Landing, the riverlands, Dorne, and the Iron Islands.[25] Both books begin immediately after the end of A Storm of Swords,[22] running in parallel instead of sequentially and involving different casts of characters with only little overlap.[25] Martin split Arya's chapters into both books after having already moved the three other most popular characters (Jon Snow, Tyrion and Daenerys) into A Dance with Dragons.[39]

Upon its release in October 2005 in the UK[40] and November 2005 in the US,[41]A Feast for Crows went straight to the top of the New York Times bestseller list.[42] Among the positive reviewers was Lev Grossman of Time, who dubbed Martin "the American Tolkien".[43] However, fans and critics alike were disappointed with the story split that left the fates of several popular characters unresolved after the previous book's cliffhanger ending.[44][45] With A Dance with Dragons said to be half-finished,[44] Martin mentioned in the epilogue in A Feast for Crows that the next volume would be released by the next year.[46] However, planned release dates were repeatedly pushed back. Meanwhile, HBO acquired the rights to turn Ice and Fire into a dramatic series in 2007[47] and aired the first of ten episodes covering A Game of Thrones in April 2011.[48]

With around 1600 pages in manuscript length,[49]A Dance with Dragons was eventually published in July 2011 after six years of writing,[18] longer in page count and writing time than any of the preceding four novels.[15][44] The story of A Dance with Dragons catches up on A Feast of Crows around two thirds into the book, going further than Feast,[38] but covered less story than Martin intended, omitting at least one planned large battle sequence and leaving several character threads ending in cliff-hangers.[15] Martin attributed the delay mainly to his untangling "the Meereenese knot", which the interviewer understood as "making the chronology and characters mesh up as various threads converged on [Daenerys]".[45] Martin also acknowledged spending too much time on rewriting and perfecting the story, but soundly rejected the theories of his more extravagant critics that he had lost interest in the series or would bide his time to make more money.[44]

Planned novels and future

The sixth book is going to be called The Winds of Winter,[50] taking the title of the originally planned fifth book.[23] In June 2010, Martin had already finished four chapters of The Winds of Winter from the viewpoints of Sansa Stark, Arya Stark and Arianne Martell.[50] In the middle of 2011, he also moved a finished Aeron Damphair POV chapter from the then unpublished A Dance with Dragons to the next book.[51] By the publication of A Dance with Dragons, around 100 pages of The Winds of Winter were completed.[52] After a book tour and several conventions, he intended to continue his work on the long-overdue The World of Ice and Fire about the history and genealogy of Westeros, which he wanted to have finished by the end of 2011. He also intended to work on a new Tales of Dunk and Egg novella that was to appear in an anthology called Dangerous Women, but in January 2013 it was announced that that story was delayed and instead it had been replaced with "The Princess and the Queen", a recounting of the events leading up to and through the Dance of the Dragons.[53][52] Having released a Theon Greyjoy POV sample chapter on his website in December 2011, Martin promised to release a second chapter in the back of the A Dance with Dragons paper-back edition.[54]

Martin hopes to finish The Winds of Winter much faster than the fifth book.[44] Having gotten in trouble from fans for repeatedly estimating his publication dates too optimistically, Martin refrains from making absolute estimates for book six.[15] A realistic estimation for finishing The Winds of Winter might be three years for him at a good pace,[49] but ultimately the book "will be done when it's done".[22] Martin does not intend to separate the characters geographically again but acknowledged that "Three years from [2011] when I'm sitting on 1,800 pages of manuscript with no end in sight, who the hell knows".[19]

Displeased with the provisional title A Time For Wolves for the final volume, Martin ultimately announced A Dream of Spring as the title for the seventh book in 2006.[55] Martin is firm about ending the series with the seventh novel "until I decide not to be firm",[15] leaving open the possibility of an eighth book to finish the series.[22] With his goal to tell the story from beginning to end, he will not truncate the story to fit into an arbitrary number of volumes.[56] Martin is confident to have published the remaining books before the TV series overtakes him,[19] although he told major plot points to the two main Game of Thrones producers in case he should die.[19] (Aged 62 in 2011, Martin is by all accounts in robust health.)[57] However, Martin indicated he would not permit another writer to finish the series.[44] He knows the ending in broad strokes as well as the future of the main characters,[19] which will have bittersweet elements where not everyone will live happily ever after.[28] Martin hopes to write an ending similar to The Lord of the Rings that he felt gave the story a satisfying depth and resonance. On the other hand, Martin noted the challenge to avoid a situation like the finale of Lost, which left fans disappointed by deviating from their own theories and desires.[22]

Martin does not rule out additional stories set in Westeros after the last book, although he is unlikely to continue in that vein immediately.[58] He is fairly definite about only returning to the World of Westeros in context of stand-alone novels.[35] Having created a huge world in such detail, Martin sees the possibility of more stories to tell there. But instead of a direct continuation of A Song of Ice and Fire, he would write stories about characters from other periods of history.[59] He also wants to finish the Dunk and Egg project.[35] He will see if his audience follows him after publishing his next project. He would love to return to writing short stories, novellas, novelettes and stand-alone novels from diverse genres such as science fiction, horror, fantasy, or even a murder mystery.[21][27] Regarding A Song of Ice and Fire as his magnum opus, Martin is certain to never write anything on the scale of this series again.[35]


The series has been placed as the number 1 rated series at the Internet Book List since a revision of the rating system in October 2005.[60], Additionally the individual books has won a number of awards:

  • A Game of Thrones (1996) - Locus Award winner, Nebula and World Fantasy Awards nominee, 1997.
  • A Clash of Kings (1998) - Locus Award winner, Nebula Award nominee, 1999.
  • A Storm of Swords (2000) - Locus Award winner, Hugo and Nebula Awards nominee, 2001.
  • A Feast for Crows (2005) - Hugo, Locus, and British Fantasy Awards nominee, 2006.
  • A Dance with Dragons (2011) - Locus Award Winner, Hugo Award nominee, 2012.

Derived works

Main article: Derived works

The series is the basis of a great number of derived works, including the HBO TV series Game of Thrones, a card game, a board game, a role-playing game and two video games under development. It has also inspired several musicians, and an upcoming parody of A Game of Thrones.

Pronunciation of names

Main article: Pronunciation guide

Unlike J. R. R. Tolkien, who provided detailed instructions for the pronunciation of the languages of Middle-earth, Martin has provided no canonical way of pronouncing Westerosi names, stating "You can pronounce it however you like." [61] However, it is possible to establish some guidelines.


  1. ↑Spanish Q&A - July 2008
  2. ↑SFX Magazine #138 feature, Christmas 2005
  3. ↑Biographical author summaries in Dreamsongs
  4. ↑Ansible #79, February 1994
  5. ↑
  6. ↑So Spake Martin Report #1
  7. ↑EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks 'A Dance With Dragons'
  8. ↑Q&A Summary on - September 1999
  9. ↑Author statement on - 11 November 1998
  10. ↑Author statement on - 4 December 1999
  11. ↑Featured Review: The Hedge Knight
  12. ↑Interview with Scott Lynch - 2006
  13. ↑Joe Abercrombie blog entry on A Game of Thrones - 16 February 2008
  14. ↑GRRM's Blog - 16 September 2007
  15., James (July 22, 2011). "The Fantasy King".,,20470532_20511966,00.html. Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  16. ↑Harte, Bryant (July 13, 2011). "An Interview With George R. R. Martin, Part II". Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  17., Linda (January 2001). "January interview: George R.R. Martin". Retrieved 2012-01-21.  (Interview approved by GRRM.)
  18., Dave (April 1, 2011). "His Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy: George R. R. Martin Talks Game of Thrones". Retrieved 2012-02-03. 
  19., James (July 12, 2011). "EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks A Dance With Dragons". Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  20. ↑"Prime Time Replay: George R. R. Martin on A Game of Thrones". November 21, 1996. Archived from the original on 1997-08-10. Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  21., Darrell (May 24, 2007). "George R.R. Martin on magic vs. science". Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  22., Rachael (July 11, 2011). "George R.R. Martin on Sex, Fantasy, and A Dance With Dragons". Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  23., Nick (December 2000). "Sunsets of High Renown – An Interview with George R. R. Martin". Retrieved 2012-01-21.  (Interview approved by GRRM.)
  24., Eric (January 30, 2002 accessdate=2012-01-21). "George R.R Martin Interview". Archived from the original on 2004-08-18.  (Interview approved by GRRM.)
  25., George R. R. (May 29, 2005). "Done.". Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  26. ↑"Fiction review: A Game of Thrones". July 29, 1996. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  27. 27.027.1Kirschling, Gregory (November 27, 2007). "By George!".,,20161804,00.html. Retrieved 2012-01-21. 
  28., Tasha (December 11, 2000). "Interview: George R.R. Martin continues to sing a magical tale of ice and fire". Retrieved 2012-02-02. 
  29. ↑"Fiction review: A Clash of Kings". February 1, 1999. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
George R. R. Martin at the 2011 Time 100 gala.

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Since APA style format is used often in science fields, the belief is “less is more.” Make sure you’re able to get your points across in a clear and brief way. Be direct, clear, and professional. Try not to add fluff and unnecessary details into your paper or writing.  This will keep the paper length shorter and more concise.

Using Headings Properly:

Headings serve an important purpose – they organize your paper and make it simple to locate different pieces of information. In addition, headings provide readers with a glimpse to the main idea, or content, they are about to read.

In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with different sizes and purposes

  • Level 1: The largest heading size
    • This is the title of your paper
    • The title should be centered in the middle of the page
    • The title should be bolded
    • Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary (called title capitalization)
  • Level 2:
    • Should be a bit smaller than the title, which is Level 1
    • Place this heading against the left margin
    • Use bold letters
    • Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary
  • Level 3:
    • Should be a bit smaller than Level 2
    • Indented in from the left side margin
    • Use bold letters
    • Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. All others should be lowercase. The exception is for pronouns as they should begin with a capital letter.
  • Level 4:
    • Should be a bit smaller than Level 3
    • Indented in from the left margin
    • Bolded
    • Italicized
    • Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. All others should be lowercase. The exception is for pronouns as they should begin with a capital letter.
  • Level 5:
    • Should be the smallest heading in your paper
    • Indented
    • Italicized
    • Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. All others should be lowercase. The exception is for pronouns as they should begin with a capital letter.

Here is a visual example of the levels of headings:

Bullying in Juvenile Detention Centers    (Level 1)

Negative Outcomes of Bullying in Detention Centers (Level 2)

Depression (Level 3)

Depression in School (Level 4)

Withdrawal from peers (Level 5)

Withdrawal from staff

Depression at Home (Level 4)


Positive Outcomes of Bullying in Detention Centers


Writing Style Tips:

Writing a paper for scientific topics is much different than writing for English, literature, and other composition classes. Science papers are much more direct, clear, and concise. This section includes key suggestions, from APA, to keep in mind while formulating your research paper.

Verb usage:

Research experiments and observations rely on the creation and analysis of data to test hypotheses and come to conclusions. While sharing and explaining the methods and results of studies, science writers often use verbs. When using verbs in writing, make sure that you continue to use them in the same tense throughout the section you’re writing.

Here’s an example:

We tested the solution to identify the possible contaminants.

It wouldn’t make sense to add this sentence after the one above:

We tested the solution to identify the possible contaminants. Researchers often test solutions by placing them under a microscope.

Notice that the first sentence is in the past tense while the second sentence is in the present tense. This can be confusing for readers.

For verbs in scientific papers, the manual recommends using:

  • Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure
  • Past tense for the explanation of the results
  • Present tense for the explanation of the conclusion and future implications


Even though your writing will not have the same fluff and detail as other forms of writing, it should not be boring or dull to read. The Publication Manual suggests thinking about who will be the main reader of your work and to write in a way that educates them.

Reducing Bias & Labels:

The American Psychological Association strongly objects of any bias towards gender, racial groups, ages of individuals or subjects, disabilities, and sexual orientation. If you’re unsure whether your writing is free of bias and labels or not, have a few individuals read your work to determine if it’s acceptable.

Here are a few guidelines that the American Psychological Association suggests:

  • Only include information about an individual’s orientation or characteristic if it is important to the topic or study. Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary to include.
  • If writing about an individual’s characteristic or orientation, make sure to put the person first. Instead of saying, “Diabetic patients,” say, “Patients who are diabetic.”
  • Instead of using narrow terms such as, “adolescents,” or “the elderly,” try to use broader terms such as, “participants,” and “subjects.”
  • Be mindful when using terms that end with “man” or “men” if they involve subjects who are female. For example, instead of using “Firemen,” use the term, “Firefighter.” In general, avoid ambiguity.
  • When referring to someone’s racial or ethnic identity, use the census category terms and capitalize the first letter. Also, avoid using the word, “minority,” as it can be interpreted as meaning less than or deficient.
  • When describing subjects, use the words “girls” and “boys” for children who are under the age of 12. The terms, “young woman,” “young man,” “female adolescent,” and “male adolescent” are appropriate for subjects between 13-17 years old. “Men,” and “women,” for those older than 18. Use the term, “older adults.” for individuals who are older. “Elderly,” and “senior,” are not acceptable if used only as nouns. It is acceptable to use these terms if they’re used as adjectives.

Spelling, Abbreviations, Spacing, and other Word & Number Rules:

  • Use one space after most punctuation marks unless the punctuation mark is at the end of a sentence. If the punctuation mark is at the end of the sentence, use two spaces afterwards.
  • If you’re including an acronym in your paper (like “APA”), it is not necessary to include periods between the letters.
  • Use abbreviations sparingly. If too many abbreviations are used in one sentence, it may become difficult for the reader to comprehend the meaning.
  • Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses. Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description.
    • Example: While it may not affect a patient’s short-term memory (STM), it may affect their ability to comprehend new terms. Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor.
  • If an abbreviation is featured in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary as is, then it is not necessary to spell out the meaning. Example: AIDS
  • Use an oxford comma. This type of comma is placed before the words and OR or in a series of three items. Example: The medication caused drowsiness, upset stomach, and fatigue.
  • Use the same spelling as words found in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (American English)
  • If the word you’re trying to spell is not found in Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, a second resource is Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
  • If attempting to properly spell words in the psychology field, consult the American Psychological Association’s Dictionary of Psychology
  • When writing a possessive singular noun, place the apostrophe before the s. For possessive plural nouns, the apostrophe is placed after the s.
    • Singular: Linda Morris’s jacket
    • Plural: The Morris’ house
  • For hyphens, do not place a space before or after the hyphen: custom-built
  • For numbers, use the numeral if the number is more than 10. If it’s less than 10, type it out.
    • 14 kilograms
    • seven meters

Use of Graphics:

  • If you plan to add any charts, tables, drawings, or images to your paper, number them using Arabic numerals. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numeral order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example: Chart 1, Chart 2, Chart 3.
  • Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic.
  • Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic.

Fundamentals of an APA Citation

Generally, APA citations follow the following format:

Contributors. (Date). Title. Publication Information.

Click here to find additional information about citation fundamentals.

Contributor Information and Titles:

The main contributor(s) of the source (often the name of the author) is placed before the date and title. If there is more than one author, arrange the authors in the same order found on the source. Use the first and middle name initials and the entire last name. Inverse all names before the title.

One author:

Smith, J. K. (Date). Title.

Two authors:

Smith, J. K., & Sampson, T. (Date). Title.

Three authors:

Smith, J. K., Sampson, T., & Hubbard, A. J. (Date). Title.

Eight or more:

Smith, J. K., Sampson, T., Hubbard, A. J., Anderson, J., Thompson, T., Silva, P.,…Bhatia, N. (Date). Title.

Other contributor types

Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor for a book, a conductor for a musical piece, or a producer for a film. In this instance, follow the contributor with the contributor type (abbreviate Editor(s) as Ed. or Eds. and most other roles can be spelled out in their entirety).

One contributor examples:

Smith, J. K. (Ed.). (Year published). Title.

Lu, P. (Producer). (Year published). Title.

Two contributors examples:

Smith, J. K., & Sampson, T. (Eds.). (Year published). Title.

Lu, P., & Winters, U. (Producers). (Year published). Title.

Corporate or group authors

Some sources may have corporate or group authors. Write these organizations in their entirety, and place them where you would write the author. If the organization is also the publisher of the source, write “Author” instead of repeating the publisher name.

Corporate author:

American Psychological Association. (Date). Title. Washington, DC: Author.

Government author:

Illinois Department of Industrial Relations. (Date). Title. Springfield, IL: McGraw-Hill

No contributor information

Sometimes you will come across sources with no contributor information. In this instance, do not write the date first. Instead, write the name of the title and then the date, then followed by the remaining appropriate bibliographic data.

Webster’s dictionary. (1995). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Title Rules – Capitalization and Italics

Article titles and works within larger works, such as chapters and web pages, as well as informally published material are not italicized. Main titles that stand alone, such as those for books and journals, are italicized. Generally, capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title or any subtitles, and the first letter of any proper nouns. For titles of periodicals, such as journals and newspapers, capitalize every principal word.

Publication Information

After the contributor information and title comes the publication information. Below are different publication templates.


Last, F. M. (Date Published). Book title. City, State: Publisher.


Last, F. M. (Date Published). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page(s).


Last, F. M. (Date Published). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), Page(s).


Last, F. M. (Date Published). Web page title. Retrieved from Homepage URL


Last, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Article title. Newspaper Title, Page(s).

Note: If there is no date, use “n.d” in parentheses, which means “no date.

Note: Page numbers for chapters of books and newspapers are preceded by “p.” or “pp.” [plural], while those of magazines and journals are only written with numbers.

Additional information

For less conventional source types, you can add descriptions about the source after the title, in brackets, immediately after the title. For example, you can add [Brochure] after the title of a brochure (separated by a space) to clarify the type of source you are citing.

Getty Images. (2015, September 19). David Wright #5 of the New York Mets walks back to the dugout [Photograph]. Retrieved from

When citing nonperiodical sources, advanced information such as the edition and series information comes before the publication information and immediately after the title, grouped in the same parentheses. See the example below:

Smith, J. (2002). Power. In R. C. Richardson (Ed.), The time of the future (5th ed., Volume 3). Philadelphia, PA: Sage.

Here’s a useful site to help you understand citations a bit more.

How to Format In-Text, or Parenthetical Citations:

Researchers include brief parenthetical citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote.

If some of the information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation. In-text APA citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period.

Example of a parenthetical citations without the author’s name in the text:

Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s (Belafonte, 2008).

Example of a parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text:

According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s (2008).

For parenthetical citations with two authors, format your parenthetical citation like this:

Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010).

For parenthetical citations with three to five authors:

  • Include all names in the first in-text parenthetical citation, separated by commas and then an ampersand (&).
    • Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart, Colbert, & Oliver, 2010).
  • For all subsequent in-text parenthetical citations, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” and the publication year if it is the first citation in a paragraph.
    • The event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause (Stewart et al. 2010).


    • Stewart et al. (2010) state that the event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause.

For parenthetical citations for six or more authors, include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year in ALL parenthetical citations.

The study did not come to any definitive conclusions (Rothschild et al., 2013).

For parenthetical citations for sources without an author:

  • If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry (in many cases, the title) and the year.
  • Use quotation marks around the titles of articles, chapters, and/or websites.
  • However, unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles and chapters should have all major words capitalized.
  • Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures, or reports.


    • Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data,” 2013).
    • The report includes some bleak results (Information Illiteracy in Academia, 2009).

Citing a part of a work:

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as a chapters, tables, or figures. Direct quotes should always have page numbers.

Example for citing part of a source in your in-text or parenthetical APA citation:

One of the most memorable quotes is when he says, “You are going to live a good and long life filled with great and terrible moments that you cannot even imagine yet!” (Green, 2012, p. 272).

If the source does not include page numbers (such as online sources), you can reference specific parts of the work by referencing the:

  • Paragraph number (only use if the source includes actual paragraph numbers. Do not count paragraphs) with the abbreviation “para.” (Klein, 2017, para. 7).
  • Tables and figures spelled out, starting with capital letters (Klein, 2017, Table 1) or (Klein, 2017, Figure A).
  • Chapters spelled out, starting with capital letters (Klein, 2017, Chapter 19).
  • Official headings can be spelled out, starting with a capital letter. If they’re lengthy, use the first few words of the title. (Klein, 2017, Methodology section).
  • These specific parts can be combined. (Klein, 2017, Chapter 19, para. 8).

Citing groups or corporate authors:

Corporations, government agencies, and associations can be considered the author of a source when no specific author is given.

  • Write out the full name of the group in all parenthetical citations
    The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 2011).
  • You may abbreviate the group name if the group’s name is lengthy and it is a commonly recognized abbreviation in all subsequent parenthetical citations.
    The report found that over a half billion of taxpayer dollars went to the imprison residents “from 24 of New York City’s approximately 200 neighborhoods” (NAACP, 2011, p. 2).

Parenthetical citations for classical, biblical, or religious works:

  • It is not necessary to create a full APA reference list citation at the end of your project for these source types. Only include in-text, or parenthetical citations, for these sources.
  • Cite the translation or version used.
    • (Homer, trans. 1998).
    • (King James version).
  • When citing specific content from these sources, include the paragraph/line numbers that are used in classical works. This information is consistent across versions/editions, and is the easiest way to locate direct quotes from classical works.
    • The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (1 Cor. 13:4 New International Version).

Citing and formatting block quotes:

When directly quoting information from sources in your writing, you may need to format it differently depending on how many words are used.

If a quote runs on for more than 40 words:

  • Start the direct quotation on a new line
  • Indent the text roughly half an inch from the left margin
  • If there are multiple paragraphs in the quotation, indent them an extra half inch
  • Remove any quotation marks
  • Double-space the text
  • Add the parenthetical citation after the final sentence

Packer (2017) states that:

The future of fantasy sports depends on the advocacy of the Fantasy Sports Trade Association to work with various state government agencies on legislation and reform. With over ten executive board members on the Fantasy Sports Trade Association’s team, we regularly attend various state legislation sessions when fantasy sports is on the agenda. This ensures that we’re aware of and ready to take action on any changes in legislation. (p.34).

Click here to learn more about parenthetical citing.

Web Rules

When citing electronic or online sources, keep these things in mind:

  • When including URLs in the citation, do not place a period at the end.
  • If a URL runs across multiple lines of text in the citation, break the URL off before punctuation (e.g., periods, forward slashes) – except http://.
  • For journal articles, include the DOI (digital object identifier) in the citation, if there is a DOI number available. DOI numbers are preferred over URLs because DOIs never change, they remain static. URLs on the other hand can become broken or outdated links. Format it as follows:
    • If no doi is provided, include the URL of the homepage for the journal that published the article. Format it as follows: Retrieved from
    • Do not include database information, such as the name of the database or its publisher.

Plagiarism Basics:

We include citations in our research projects to prevent plagiarism. Plagiarism is when you use someone else’s work in your own project, but do not acknowledge that author and their original work. You may pretend it’s your own work or change the original author’s work to make your own project seem valid.  Plagiarism, while preventable, can result in serious consequences. Click here to learn more about plagiarism.

How to Format an APA Bibliography

  • Label the page References and center it at the the top of the page
  • Double space the entire list
  • Every line after the first line of a citation should be indented one-half inch from the left margin (also known as hanging indentations)
  • Alphabetize your entire bibliography list
  • Note that on, when using the EasyBib citation generator, it will format your references list, alphabetized and indented, and ready to hand in!

How to Format an APA Style Paper:

Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the Publication Manual’s guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using these guidelines.

General guidelines:

  • Use 8 ½ x 11” paper
  • Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
  • The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch
  • Use Times New Roman font, size 12
  • Double space the entire paper
  • Include a page header known as the “running head” at the top of every page. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add these components onto each page)
    • To create a running head/page header, insert page numbers justified to the right-hand side of the paper (do not put p. or pg. in front of the page numbers)
    • Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” justified to the left using all capital letters
    • If your title is long, this running head title should be a shortened version of the title of your entire paper.

  • APA Format Papers Components: Your essay should include these four major sections:
    • An APA format Title Page:
      • This page should contain four pieces: the title of the paper, running head, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and an author’s note. Create the page header/running head as described above. *Please note that only on the title page, your page header/running head should include the words “Running Head” before your title in all capital letters. The rest of the pages should not include this in the page header. It should look like this on the title page:

  • The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.
  • It should be centered on the page and typed in 12-point Times New Roman font. Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title.
  • Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length.
  • All text on the title page should be double-spaced in the same way as the rest of your essay.
  • Do not include any titles on the author’s name such as Dr. or Ms.
  • The institutional affiliation is the location where the author conducted the research.


On the following page, begin with the Running title.

  1. On the first line of the page, center the word “Abstract” (but do not include quotation marks).
  2. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
  3. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than 250 words.
  4. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics.  Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.

APA Sample Paper Abstract page:

The Body

On the following page, begin with the Body of the APA paper.

  1. Start with the Running title
  2. On the next line write the title (do not bold, underline, or italicize the title)
  3. Begin with the introduction. Indent.
  4. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based.  It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
  5. Begin a new section with the Method. Bold and center this subtitle The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
  6. Begin a new section with the Results. Bold and center this subtitle.  The Results section summarizes the data. Use charts and graphs to display this data.
  7. Begin a new section with the Discussion. Bold and center this subtitle. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.
    1. Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions.
    2. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results.
    3. Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.

** Throughout the body, in-text citations are used and include the author name(s) and the publication year.

   Ex: (Wilkonson, 2009).

Sample Body page:

APA Referencing

On a new page, write your references.

  1. Begin with a running title
  2. Center and bold the title “References” (do not include quotation marks, underline, or italicize this title)
  3. Alphabetize and Double-space all entries
  4. Every article/source mentioned in the paper and used in your study should be referenced and have an entry.

Sample Reference Page:

How to Cite Various Source Types:


A book is a written work or composition that has been published – typically printed on pages bound together.

Book citations contain the author name, publication year, book title, city and state or country of publication and the publisher name.

Much of the information you need to create a print book citation can be found on the title page. The title page is found within the first couple of pages of the book.

Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher.

James, H. (2009). The ambassadors. Rockville, MD: Serenity.

If you need further assistance with citing books, EasyBib’s APA format generator will automatically cite them for you. See more across the site.

Chapter in a Print Book:

A chapter is a specific section, or segment, of a book. Chapters often have their own title or they are numbered.

Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In F. M. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Much of the information you will need to create a chapter in a print book citation can be found on the title page. The title page is found within the first couple of pages of the book. You will also need some of the information found on the table of contents. The chapter title, author, and page numbers can be found there.

Shuhua, L. (2007). The night of MidAutumn Festival. In J. S. M. Lau & H. Goldblatt (Eds.), The Columbia Anthology of Modern Chinese Literature (pp. 95-102). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.


An e-book is a written work or composition that has been digitized and is readable through computers or e-readers such as Kindles, iPads, Nooks, etc.

Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of work [E-reader version]. Retrieved from URL

Stoker, B. (2000). Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from

Chapter in an E-book:

Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In F. M. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version] (pp. xx-xx). Retrieved from URL or

The Bible and Other Classical Religious Texts:

The Bible and other classical religious texts (such as the Torah, the Qur’an, and others) do not require a citation in the reference list. However, you must include an in-text citation anytime you reference these texts in your writing.

For the in-text citation, when quoting or paraphrasing specific excerpts from the text, include the information about the specific verse, line, page, etc.

If the version of the religious text you are using is relevant, mention it in the first reference in your writing. This can be as either a general reference or a formal in-text citation.


The Bible extols the virtues of love; “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud” (1 Cor. 13:4 New International Version).

Remember, you only need to cite the version of the religious text used in the first general reference or in-text citation of the source. In all other instances, leave it out.


Scholarly, or academic, journals are often created for specific fields or disciplines. They are issued periodically throughout the year and feature scholarly articles, research studies, and/or reviews.

In journal citations, journal titles are written in title case and followed by the volume number. Both of these fields should be italicized.

Journals found on a database or online:

Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), pp.-pp. or Retrieved from homepage URL

Database information and the retrieval date are not required in journal article citations.

If no DOI is listed, use the periodical homepage URL. Example: Retrieved from

Trier, J. (2007). “Cool” engagements with YouTube: Part 2. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(7), 598-603.

Journals found in print:

Author, F. M., Author, F. M. & Author, F. M. (Year of Publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume Number(Issue Number), page range.

Lin, M.G., Hoffman, E.S., & Borengasser, C. (2013). Is social media too social for class? A case study of Twitter use. Tech Trends, 57(2), 39-45.

If you need help citing your journal articles, EasyBib’s APA generator cites them automatically for you.


A newspaper is a daily or weekly publication that contains news; often featuring articles on political events, crime, business, art, entertainment, society, and sports.

Newspapers found in print:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx-xx.

If the article is printed on discontinuous pages, list all of the page numbers/ranges and separate them with a comma (e.g., pp. C2, C4, C7-9.)

Bowman, L. (1990, March 7). Bills target Lake Erie mussels. Pittsburgh Press, p. A4.

Newspapers found online:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from newspaper’s homepage URL

The URL of the newspaper’s homepage is used to avoid broken links

Kaplan, K. (2013, October 22). Flu shots may reduce risk of heart attacks, strokes and even death. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

If you are using a bibliography tool, like EasyBib’s APA citation machine, make sure you are citing a newspaper article – not a website!


A magazine is a periodical that often contains text and/or graphics that revolve around a specific topic or subject. Most articles in magazines are relatively short in length (compared to journals) and often contain colorful images.

Magazines in print:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month of Publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume number(Issue number), page range.

The volume number can be found on the publication information page of the magazine. Page numbers are typically found on the bottom corners of an article. If issue number is not provided, omit it from the citation.

Luckerson, V. (2014, January). Tech’s biggest promises for 2014. TIME, 183, 23-25.

Magazines found online:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month of Publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume number(Issue number). Retrieved from URL of magazine’s homepage or DOI number.

The volume and issue number may not be on the same page as the article. Browse the website before omitting it from the citation.

Luckerson, V. (2014, January). Tech’s biggest promises for 2014. TIME. Retrieved from

Need further help with your magazine citations? Try EasyBib’s APA formatter.


An online blog generally revolves around one specific subject matter and contains text or graphics that are added by an individual, group, or organization. Individual blog posts are regularly added to a blog site.

Author, F. M. (Year, Month, Day of Publication). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

If the author’s full name is not available, the author’s screen name or handle is acceptable to use.

Silver, N. (2013, July 15). Senate control in 2014 increasingly looks like a tossup [Blog post]. Retrieved from


A website is a group of online pages, placed together, that can contain text and/or images for informational or entertainment purposes. Most websites revolve around a topic or theme. There are news websites, sports, research, shopping, and many other types of websites.

Note that many sources have citation structures for their online versions (e.g., online newspapers, dictionaries, magazine or journal articles). Check the other formats on this page to see if there is a specific citation type in an online format that matches your source.

Website with an author:

Author, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of web page [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Only include information about the format in brackets if the website is a unique type of document, such as a PDF.

Limer, E. (2013, October 1). Heck yes! The first free wireless plan is finally here. Retrieved from

Website without an author:

Title of web page [Format]. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Retrieved from URL

Only italicize the title if it stands alone (such as a singular online document or complete report). If you’re unsure of whether or not to italicize, then do not italicize the title.

Mongolia. (2016, December 5). Retrieved from


A tweet is a post that is made on the social media site, Twitter.

Last name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of Posting). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from URL

If the author’s full name is unavailable, only include the username at the beginning of the citation, without brackets.

RealTalkRaph. (2017, September 2). The Patriots are always many moves ahead of every other NFL team. Extreme organizational depth at all skilled positions & a fearless leader [Tweet]. Retrieved from

YouTube Video:

YouTube is a popular website that displays videos that are uploaded by individuals and companies.

Uploader’s Last name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Day of Posting). Video title [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

If the author’s full name is unavailable, only include the username at the beginning of the citation, without brackets.

305 Fitness. (2017, August 18). When I grow up [Video file]. Retrieved from

Musical Recording:

Musical recordings are musical audio clips, songs, or albums. Many are found online and listened to digitally.

Songwriter’s Last name, F. M. (Publication year). Song title [Recorded by F. M. Singer’s Last Name]. On Album title [Audio file]. Retrieved from URL

Only include the information about the individual or band who performs the song if it is different than the name of the author, or songwriter.

Red Hot Chili Peppers. (2006). Tell me baby. On Stadium arcadium [Audio file]. Retrieved from

Don’t forget, our EasyBib APA reference generator cites your musical recordings and songs for you!

Sheet Music or a Musical Score:

The American Psychological Association’s guidelines do not specify how to cite sheet music. We suggest following the book format when citing sheet music. After the title of the piece, indicate that you are citing sheet music by way of using a descriptor like [Sheet music], [Libretto], or [Musical score]. One major difference between a book and sheet music is that sheet music is written by a composer, not an author. You can specify this fact if you would like, by formatting the beginning of the citation like this:

Composer’s Last name, F. M. (Composer).

Or, treat the composer like an author by not including the word composer in parentheses.

Additionally, sheet music can come as individual work or it can be part of a collection or book.

Sheet music found in print:

Composer’s Last name, F. M. (Year of Publication). Sheet music’s title [Format]. Publisher’s Location: Publisher.

Beethoven, L. (2002). Fur Elise [Sheet music]. New York: Random House.

Sheet music found online:

Composer’s Last name, F. M. (Year of Publication). Sheet music’s title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Beethoven, L. (Composer). (2002). Fur Elise [Sheet music]. Retrieved from


Producer’s Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Director’s Last name, F. M. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of film [Format]. Retrieved from URL

The format is placed in brackets directly after the title. It can be either DVD, video file, or another medium that the film is found on.

Thomas, E. (Producer), & Nolan C. (Director). (2017). Dunkirk [Video file]. Retrieved from

Remember, you can cite your movies quickly and easily with EasyBib’s APA citation maker. Looking for a free APA citation creator? Trial EasyBib’s APA formatter.

TV/Radio Broadcast/Podcast:

To cite an individual television episode or radio podcast or broadcast streamed online, use the following structure:

Writer’s Last name, F. M. (Writer), & Director’s Last name, F. M. (Director). (Year published). Title of individual episode or podcast [Television series episode or podcast]. In F. M. Producer’s Last name (Executive producer), Television or Podcast series name. Retrieved from URL

Dick, L. (Writer), & Yaitanes, G. (Director). (2009). Simple explanation [Television series episode]. In P. Attanasio (Producer), House, M.D. Retrieved from

To cite a full television series or podcast/radio broadcast in its entirety, use the following structure:

Producer’s Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Creator’s Last name, F. M. (Creator). (Year aired). Title of television series or podcast series [Television series or podcast series]. Retrieved from URL

Benihoff, D. & Weiss, D. B. (Producers & Creators). (2017). Game of thrones, season 7 [Television series]. Retrieved from

The EasyBib citation builder automatically cites your TV, radio broadcast, and podcast sources for you!

Thesis or Dissertation:

A thesis is a document submitted to earn a degree at a university. A dissertation is a document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.

Many theses and dissertations can be found on databases. For this specific source type, include the name of the database in the citation. In most other source types, the name of the database isn’t included in the citation.

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Database Title. (Order number or Accession number).

Knight, K.A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from MLA International Bibliography Database. (Accession No. 2013420395)

If the thesis or dissertation is found on a website, use this structure:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from URL

Wilson, P.L. (2011). Pedagogical practices in the teaching of English language in secondary public schools in Parker County (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Conference Paper:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year presented, month). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Name of Organization, Place of Meeting. Retrieved from URL

Briden, J., Burns, V., & Marshall, A. (2007, March). Knowing our students: Undergraduates in context. Paper presented at ACRL National Conference, Baltimore, MD. Retrieved from


Reference lists only include works that can be found by the reader. As a personal interview is not published or “findable,” it should not be included in the reference list. Instead, a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, June 18, 2017).

If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview.

Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Interview). Interview by F. M. Last name [Format of Interview].

Mobile App:

Apps are often used on digital devices such smartphones, tablets, and wearables such as smartwatches. Apps are downloaded from an app store by the user. Some apps correlate with a website and some apps stand alone.

Creator’s Last name, F. M. or Company. (Year version was published). App’s Title (Version). [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from URL’s homepage

SoundCloud. (2017). SoundCloud – Music & Audio (Version 5.12.0). [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from


Encyclopedias are reference works that focus on a specific discipline or they may contain information about all general topics. Encyclopedias are often organized in alphabetical order and contain entries, which are brief overviews, of a topic.

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of entry. In F. M. Editor’s Last name (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Version). Retrieved from URL

Davis, A. S., & Landis, D. A. (2011) Agriculture. In D. Simberloff & M. Rejmanek (Eds.), Encyclopedia of biological invasions. Retrieved from


Dictionary entry. (Year published). In Title of dictionary (Version). Retrieved from URL

Donkey. In Oxford English living dictionary. Retrieved from

Our EasyBib APA citation generator cites your dictionary entries automatically for you!

Need more information? Click here to learn more about crediting sources.

What is an Abstract?

An abstract is a summary of a scholarly article or scientific study. Scholarly articles and studies are rather lengthy documents and abstracts allow readers to first determine if they’d like to read an article in its entirety or not.

You may come across abstracts while researching a topic. Many databases display abstracts in the search results and also often display them before showing the full text to an article or scientific study. It is important to create a high quality abstract, that accurately communicates the purpose and goal of your paper, as readers will determine if it is worthy to continue reading or not.

If you’re planning on submitting your paper to a journal for publication, first check the journal’s website to learn about abstract and paper requirements.

Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract:

  • Feature the main keywords of your project or paper in the abstract. In addition, use the keywords or keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Individuals who are researching the same or similar topics may come across your abstract and find it useful to read or use for their own research purposes.
  • Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording.
  • Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action.


Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.

Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication.

  • Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains.
  • If a large portion of your work includes the extension of someone else’s research, share this in the abstract and include the author’s last name and the year their work was released.

Categories of Papers:

  • Empirical Studies
    • Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports. It is different from other types of studies in that it isn’t based on theories or ideas, but on actual data.
  • Literature Reviews
    • These papers analyze another individual’s work or a group of works. The purpose is to gather information about a current issue or problem and to communicate where we are today. It sheds light on issues and attempts to fill those gaps with suggestions for future research and methods.
  • Theoretical Articles
    • These papers are somewhat similar to a literature reviews, in that the author collects, examines, and shares information about a current issue or problem, by using others’ research. It is different from literature reviews in that it attempts to explain or solve a problem by coming up with a new theory. This theory is justified with valid evidence.
  • Methodological Articles:
    • These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. The author has data or documentation to prove that their new method, or improvement to a method, is valid. Plenty of evidence is included in this type of article. In addition, the author explains the current method being used in addition to their own findings, in order to allow the reader to understand and modify their own current practices.
  • Case Studies:
    • Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals. These subjects are analyzed for a specific reason and the author reports on the method and conclusions from their study. The author may also make suggestions for future research, create possible theories, and/or determine a solution to a problem.



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