Phys Rev Lett Bibliography Style Sheets

January 2013

Information for Contributors

This journal, and more detailed information about it, can be found at Prospective authors are particularly advised to consult the information accessible via the Submit a Manuscript subpages. Those looking for a specific known file may find it more convenient to consult the alphabetical listing via the Frequently Used Memos link on the Information for Authors subpage, in the Authors, General Information section.

Manuscripts must be submitted electronically (via direct Web upload or via e-print servers). Interactive submission forms are an integral part of the submission process. These forms aid authors in supplying all the information needed in a structured format which furthers efficient processing; they also provide a location for additional "free form" information.

Please specify the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, and give all available communications information for this individual (postal and email addresses, phone and fax numbers), since in various circumstances they may all be useful. Please specify journal and section to which the paper is submitted, and give appropriate PhySH (Physics Subject Headings) terms if possible. This new physics classification scheme is explained and available via If an important subject of your paper cannot be appropriately classified by a PhySH concept, please give an appropriate keyword or phrase, and indicate approximately where in the scheme this topic would be best placed. Please provide feedback too.

Authors of manuscripts that have been sent for external review are directed, via email, to an online, interactive service that guides the completion of the 'publication rights' agreement(s), such as the APS Transfer of Copyright agreement, appropriate to their work. While such agreements take effect only upon acceptance of the manuscript for publication in an APS journal, the prompt completion of this process can prevent unnecessary delays; accepted manuscripts will not be forwarded to production until APS is in receipt of the agreement(s) associated with them.

For detailed information about electronic submissions, see Properly prepared electronic submissions are exempt from publication charges. Those that use APS macro packages may qualify for the compuscript production program, under which author-supplied files are converted directly to production format and coding, rather than being rekeyed for publication. Receipt of an electronic submission will be acknowledged by email within 2 business days. Figures for an electronic submission must be received in at least review-quality form before editorial processing can begin. Refer to the online documentation for more detailed instructions.

When a manuscript is resubmitted, please include a summary of changes made and a brief response to all recommendations and criticisms. The interactive resubmission forms available on our Web server may be used for transmission of modified manuscripts and figures. These forms should also be used when a manuscript previously submitted to one APS journal is resubmitted to another. Send the complete file for the text if there have been any changes. Please refer to the online documentation for more detailed instructions. For any resubmission, please state whether or not the figures have been modified, and supply new electronic figures if there have been such changes. It is only necessary to resend the "original" figures if the previous versions are no longer valid. Please update any other information (e.g., address and communication information) that has changed or will change since initial submission.

For general format and style consult recent issues of this journal and the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide at

Readability of the journal is an important consideration. Authors are urged to take special care in assuring that their manuscripts are well-organized and clearly written in good scientific English. Accessibility of papers is a matter of significant concern, and at least the abstract and introduction of each article should be written so as to be understandable by a broad spectrum of readers.

The title should be concise but informative enough to facilitate information retrieval. The abstract should be self-contained (contain no footnotes). It should be adequate as an index (giving all subjects, major and minor, about which new information is given) and as a summary (giving the conclusions and all results of general interest in the article). It should be about 5% of the length of the article, but less than 500 words.

Notation should be clear, compact, and consistent with standard usage. Equations should be neatly formatted, punctuated and aligned to bring out their structure, and numbered on the right. (a) Diacritical marks (tildes, etc.) can be put over any symbol, including indices. (b) Three-vectors are generally set in roman boldface type. More general vectors, matrices, etc., are usually set in lightface italic type, although boldface may alternatively be used. (c) Be careful when using the solidus (/) in fractions. For example, 1/2a means 1/(2a), not (1/2)a. Use appropriate bracketing if needed to ensure clarity.

References and footnotes to text material must be combined in a single list, numbered consecutively in their order of first appearance in the paper. They should be designated and cited in text by on-line Arabic numerals in square brackets. As an option, footnotes may appear separately from references and be placed at the bottom of the page on which they are cited. They should be designated by superscript numbers and numbered consecutively throughout the paper. Footnotes within tables should be designated by lower-case letter superscripts and given at the end of the table.

For the proper form for references, see the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide (especially Table I and the list of Journal Title Abbreviations). The names of all authors of cited papers should normally be given except when the number of authors is very large (say, more than 10). When reference is made to internal reports or other items not available in the open literature, it is the responsibility of the author to provide sufficient information to enable the reader to obtain a copy of the referenced material. References to papers published in peer-reviewed journals are considered primary references. References to e-print archives should not be used in place of primary references. References to classified reports or other documents with restricted circulation should be avoided. It is important to confirm the accuracy of bibliographic information in references. Hyperlinks will be programmed to enable readers to "click" on references and jump directly to the material cited. If your reference citations are incorrect or incomplete (e.g., missing author name, or an incorrect volume number or page), the associated hyperlinks may fail, and the usefulness of your paper in the online environment may be diminished. Since at the present time such links work only from the reference section, work cited anywhere in the paper, including in figure and table captions and in "Note(s) added," should be included in the reference section.

Footnotes to an author's name or address are intended to facilitate locating or communicating with an author. In many cases, it can be helpful to identify an author as "spokesperson" or "author to whom correspondence should be addressed." Footnotes giving email addresses of one or more corresponding authors are strongly encouraged. All information concerning research support should appear in the acknowledgments. Footnotes which describe an author's position or title are not acceptable.

Separate tables (numbered in the order of their first appearance) should be used for all but the simplest tabular material; they must have captions, which should make the tables intelligible without reference to the text. The structure should be clear, with simple column headings giving all units.

The decision on whether results should be published in long tables depends on the precision of the data, i.e., whether they can be read accurately enough from a figure, and on how many readers are likely to use the numbers relative to the space needed in the journal. Material more extensive than is appropriate for the journal article, or of special types (e.g., multimedia, program files) may be deposited as Supplemental Material; information regarding Supplemental Material is available on our Web server. If additional numerical data can be obtained from a data center, from the author, or from another source, indicate how and in what format they can be obtained.

Figures should be planned for the column width (8.6 cm or 3 3/8 in.) of the journal. If the detail shown requires it, 1.5 or 2 columns may be used. Authors are encouraged to submit all figures electronically; refer to the online instructions for more details. All figures must be prepared so that the details can be seen after reproduction. They must have a clear background and unbroken lines with as much black- white contrast as possible. The symbol width and lettering height on the journal page should be at least 2 mm. Avoid small open symbols that tend to fill in, small dots and decimal points, and shading or cross-hatching that is not coarse enough to withstand reproduction. Curves should be smooth; curves and lines should have consistent line widths of sufficient weight [final weight of at least 0.18 mm (0.5 point)]. The resolution of the drawing software and output device should be set as high as possible (preferably 600 dpi or higher).

Figures should be numbered in the order in which they are referred to in the text. Each figure must have a caption that makes the figure intelligible without reference to the text; list captions on a separate sheet. Text should be placed in the caption, not on the figure. Groups of figures that share a (single) caption must be labeled "(a), (b)," etc. The figure itself should have properly labeled axes with correctly abbreviated units enclosed in parentheses. Use consistent lettering and style as in the body of the text (correct capitalization, unslashed zeros, proper exponential notation, superscripts and subscripts, decimal points instead of commas, etc.). Use the form R (10³ Ω), not R×10³ Ω. Use half spacing within compound units, not hyphens or periods. Avoid ambiguous usage of the solidus ("/"), e.g., (mb/MeV sr), not (mb/MeV/sr). When possible, integer numbers should be used on the axis scales of figures, e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 0, 5, 10, not 1.58, 3.16, 4.75. Decimal points must be on the line (not above it); do not use commas instead. Use the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point for all numbers on the axis scales. A number must be both before and behind the decimal point, e.g., 0.2, not .2. For complete instructions see the Physical Review Style and Notation Guide.

Photographic images (either grayscale or color) should be submitted electronically as high-resolution JPEG or PNG files.

In preparing figures, care should be taken to present the scientific results accurately. If images used in any of the figures have been manipulated, except for adjustments that affect the picture as a whole (e.g., overall brightness), the modification should be described clearly in the caption or text.

Some figures might be more effective in color. The cost of printing illustrations in color, which may be significant, must be borne in full by the respective authors and their institutions.

If color is desired in the print version of the journal as well as in the online version, the author must clearly indicate which figures are intended to be printed in color as part of the submission process. Information about our pricing and payment policy for color figures in the print journal may be found at:

In order to reproduce figures, tables, etc., from another journal, authors must show that they have complied with the requirements of the publisher of the other journal, possibly including written agreement of both publisher and author of the originally published work. (If the original journal is published by APS, only the written agreement of the original author is required to reproduce a few figures or tables.)

Choosing a BibTeX Style

The great feature of BibTeX is that it takes a standardized database of books, articles, and other bibliographic entries and puts it in a customized format. A BibTeX style can change how a work is cited and how the bibliography is formatted. For more about using BibTeX than is described here, read our BibTeX documentation.

How to Use a Specific Style

  1. Choose your BibTeX style from the list below. Place it in the same folder as your LaTeX document.
  2. Change the \bibliographystyle line of your LaTeX document to reflect the style you chose. Remember to remove the file extension. For example, if you wanted to use the American Anthropologist style, \bibliographystyle{ filename} would become \bibliographystyle{humannat}.
  3. Many BibTeX styles require the inclusion of a package at the top of the document. The comments about a style will tell you exactly how to include its package. To learn more about your specific style, open up the .bst in your LaTeX editor or read the readme file, if available.
  4. Anytime you want to cite a document, type \cite[ pagenumber]{ citekey}. The square brackets and page number are optional. Some BibTeX styles use non-standard citations. Such styles include citation directions within the .bst itself or an included readme file.
  5. You will need to typeset your document four times, first LaTeX, BibTeX, LaTeX, and then LaTeX again. Your bibliography will now appear in the style of your choice and your citations will be correctly formatted. If question marks appear where citations should, that means you need to LaTeX your document once more. If the citations are entirely missing, you have likely forgotten to BibTeX your document.
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The Seven Standard Styles

Every computer with LaTeX comes with the following seven standard styles. While they work, we recommend the natbib interpretations below. NatBib is a citation package that standardizes citation commands across many different bibliography styles, so you can switch from using plain.bst to acm.bst without having to change your in-text citations.

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Styles Recommended by Reed

The following two styles were created or modified by Reed to match the following style manuals as closely as possible. Right-click (Control-Click on a Mac) on the linked name to download the style you want.

APA Style (American Psychology Association)
This is a custom style created by Ben Salzberg to duplicate the APA style as closely as possible. Make sure to include natbib as a package or it won't work. The following line should appear in the preamble: \usepackage{natbib}. 
Modern Language Associate Style (MLA)

This is a custom style created by Ben Salzberg to duplicate the Modern Language Associate style manual (6th Edition) as closely as possible. Make sure to include natbib as a package or it won't work. The following line should appear in the preamble: \usepackage{natbib}. MLA asks for citations of the form (LastName PageNumber), which is unsupported by Natbib's citation styles. We have asked Dr. Patrick Daly to provide support for these type of parenthetical citations in his next revision of natbib. In the meantime, citations of the following form will provide the correct citation:

(\citeauthor*{citekey} pagenumber)


Natbib Standard Styles




(Items in bibliography sorted in order cited)


Citation Commands Within Natbib

Author Name Styles look like this:

Numerical Styles look like this:

For additional modifications not covered above, this is a great NatBib reference sheet put out by a physical science professor in France.

And this one too! - This reference sheet includes instructions on how to change (Jones 1990, 341) to (Jones 1990: 341) [or (Jones, 1990: 341) to (Jones 1990: 341)] using the \setcitestyle command

You will see that your urls are formatted in typewritter font. If you want to change the font of your urls, add the command \urlstyle{same} to your preamble to make them the same font as the body of your paper. 

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Biblatex-Chicago Style

To use biblatex-Chicago, you need to change the backend from "bibtex" to "biber." To do this, pull up the preferences window (TeXShop/Preferences... or "⌘,"). Go to the "Engine" tab and change the entry in the BibTeX Engine field to "biber." This does require a somewhat new-ish version of tex, so if it's not working and you have an old version, you may need to download a new one.

Chicago A (footnotes)

To use Chicago style citations, comment out or remove the following line from the preamble:

To use Chicago A (footnote style citations), add these lines to the preamble (where "thesis" should be changed to the title of your .bib file):

Then go to the end of the .tex file and remove the following lines:

And replace them with this line:

Chicago B (parenthetical in-line citations)

To use Chicago style citations, comment out or remove the following line from the preamble:

To use Chicago B (parenthetical in-line citations), add these lines to the preamble (where "thesis" should be changed to the title of your .bib file):
\usepackage[authordate,autocite=inline,backend=biber, natbib]{biblatex-chicago}

Then go to the end of the .tex file and remove the following lines:

And replace them with this line:

In order to have the author and year all in parenthesis, use \autocite for in-text citation. If you want only the year in parenthesis, use \citet instead. 

Explore the Biblatex-Chicago readme on CTAN to find customizations.

Styles Available at is the official LaTeX archive containing both the official LaTeX packages and items contributed by LaTeX users. Many of these BibTeX styles have either been created by journal editors or publishers for their authors or by users creating packages to fulfill a personal need. One problem with the user-contributed styles is that they may not match the official style they claim to implement exactly. However, the journal-specific styles will exactly match the journal's house style, as they were designed by the journals. Therefore, we recommend testing any non-journal style by using it with a large BibTeX database and compare the resulting bibliography to the official style.

Discipline Specific Listings of BibTeX Journal Styles

  • Art
  • Anthropology
    • Human Nature (humannat.bst)
    • American Anthropologist (humannat.bst)
    • Behavior and Brain Sciences (bbs.bst)
  • Biology
    • American Journal of Human Genetics (ajhg.bst)
    • American Medical Association Journals (JAMA, Cancer, etc.) (ama.bst)
    • Applied Bioinformatics (openmind.bst, include openmind package)
    • Applied Bionics and Biomechanics (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Applied Biotechnology, Food Science and Policy (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Applied Environmental Science and Public Health (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Applied Health Economics and Health Policy (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Applied Nanoscience (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Applied Population and Policy (openmind.bst, include openmind)
    • Behavior and Brain Sciences (bbs.bst)
    • Bioinformatics (bioinformatics.bst, include bioinformatics package)
    • Council of Biology Editors (includes such journals as American Naturalist, Evolution, etc) (cbe.bst)
    • Cell (cell.bst)
    • Development (development.bst)
    • Ecology (ecology.bst, include natbib, emboj, floatfig packages)
    • Human Biology (humanbio.bst)
    • Human Mutation (humanmutation.bst, include humanmutation package)
    • Journal of Bacteriology (jbact.bst)
    • Journal of Molecular Biology (jmb.bst)
    • Journal of Neuroscience (namedplus.sty, include namedplus package)
    • Journal of Super Computing (jsupercomp,include jsupercomp package)
    • Journal of Theoretical Biology (jtb.bst and newjtb.bst)
    • Methods in Enzymology (methenz.bst)
    • Molecular Cell Biology (molcellbiol, include molcellbiol package)
    • National Cancer Institute (nci.bst, include nci and \usepackage[normalem]{ulem})
    • Nature (nature.bst, include nature, citesuppernumber, naturefem packages)
    • Neuron (neuron.bst)
    • Nucleic Acid Research (nar.bst)
    • PLoS: Public Library of Science Journals (plos.bst, include natbib package)
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (pnas.bst)
    • Proteins (proteins.bst, include proteins, citesupernumber packages)
    • Science (science.bst, scicite.sty)
  • Chemistry
    • American Chemical Society Journals (achemso.bst, include achemso package)
    • Journal of Computation Chemistry (jcc.bst)
    • Journal of Physical Chemistry (jpc.bst)
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (pccp.bst)
    • Reviews in Computational Chemistry (revcompchem.bst)
  • Chinese
  • Classics
  • Dance
  • Economics
    • American Economic Review (aer.bst, include harvard, aer, aertt, and ulem packages)
    • Canadian Journal of Economics (cje.bst, include cje package)
    • Econometrica (econometrica.bst, include harvard package)
    • Economic Theory (et.bst, include et package)
    • Journal of Economics and Business (JEB.bst, include JEB, harvard, endnotes, caption2 packages)
    • Journal of Finance (jf.bst, include harvard package)
    • Journal of Investing (JOI.bst, include JOI, harvard, endnotes, caption2 packages)
    • Macroeconomic Dynamics (et.bst, include et package)
    • Review of Financial Studies (rfs.bst)
  • English and Creative Writing
  • French - translations of standard styles
    • Abbreviated (abbrv-fr.bst)
    • Alphabetical (alpha-fr.bst)
    • Plain (plain-fr.bst)
    • Unsorted (unsrt-fr.bst)
  • German
    • DIN 1505 Standard aka Author-Year Style
      • Abbreviated (abbrvdin.bst)
      • Alphabetical (alphadin.bst)
      • Nat Bib for German (natdin.bst)
      • Plain (plaindin.bst)
      • Unsorted (unsrtdin.bst)
    • Germbib Package
      • Abbreviated (gerabbrv.bst)
      • Alphabetical (geralpha.bst)
      • Apalike (gerapali.bst)
      • Plain (gerplain.bst)
      • Unsorted (gerunsrt.bst)
  • History
  • Linguistics
    • CSLI (cslibib.bst)
    • Language (laslike.bst)
    • Lingua (lingua.bst)
    • Linguistic Society of America style sheet (lsalike.bst)
    • Natural Language Semantics (nals.bst)
  • Mathematics
    • Association for Computing Machinery (acm.bst)
    • Association for Computing Machinery Transactions (acmtrans.bst)
    • American Mathematical Society
      • alphabetical (amsalpha.bst)
      • plain (amsplain.bst)
    • American Statistical Association Journals (asa.bst, include \bibpunct{(}{)}{;}{a}{}{,} in the preamble)
      • American Statistician
      • Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
      • Journal of the American Statistical Association
      • Journal of Business and Economic Statistics
      • Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
      • Technometrics
    • Biometrika (biometrika.bst)
    • Computer Journal (cj.bst)
    • Design Computing Unit, University of Sydney (dcu.bst)
    • IEEE Transactions (ieeetr.bst)
    • Institute of Mathematical Statistics Journals (ims.bst)
      • Annals of Applied Probability
      • Annals of Probability
      • Annals of Statistics
    • Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (rss.bst)
    • SIAM
    • Numerical Algorithms (numalg.bst)
    • American Association for Artificial Intelligence (aaai.bst)
  • Music
  • Philosophy
    • American Association for Artificial Intelligence (aaai.bst)
  • Physics
    • American Association for Artificial Intelligence (aaai.bst)
    • American Institute of Physics Journal (phaip.bst)
    • Astronomy (astron.bst)
    • Computer Physics Communications (phcpc.bst)
    • International Atomic Energy Agency Conferences (phiaea.bst)
    • IEEE with annotations(IEEEannot.bst)
    • IEEE Transactions (ieeetr.bst)
    • Journal of Computational Physics (phjcp.bst)
    • Journal of Quality Technology (jqt1999.bst)
    • Nuclear Fusion
    • Nuclear Fusion Letters
    • Optical Society of America (osa.bst)
    • Physics of Fluids
    • Reviews of Modern Physics (amsrmp.bst)
    • Physical Review (covers A, B, C, D, E, Special Topics, Focus, and Letters) (apsrev.bst)
    • Translate Physics Journals Initials into Full Names
  • Political Science
    • American Political Science Review (apsr-new.bst)
  • Psychology (various APA styles) (We recommend apa-good)
    • apalike
    • apa-good
    • apalike2
    • newapa
    • phapalik
    • apasoft
    • apacite
  • Religion
  • Russian (supporting Russian and Ukrainian)
    • GOST 7.1 1984
      • Sorted (gost71s.bst)
      • Unsorted (gost71u.bst)
    • GOST 7.80 2000
      • Sorted (gost780s.bst)
      • Unsorted (gost780u.bst)
  • Spanish
  • Sociology
    • American Journal of Sociology (ajs.bst)
    • American Sociological Review (asr.bst)
  • Theatre
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